Scientific Understanding of Consciousness
Consciousness as an Emergent Property of Thalamocortical Activity

Basal Ganglia -- Multiple Parallel Loops

(György Buzsáki -  Rhythms of the Brain, 366)




The multiple inhibitory loops of the basal ganglia are funneled onto the relatively small ventralis anterior and ventralis lateralis (VA/VL) nuclei of the thalamus, affecting cortical–thalamic–cortical communication.

The multiple loops include:

(1) neocortex–striatum–pallidum,

(2) neocortex–stria­tum–substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr),

(3) neocortex–subthalamic nucleus (STN)–pal­lidum,

(4) neocortex–STN–SNr.

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