Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy
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Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 11 Dendrites contain all the organelles found in the neuroplasm of the cell except the Golgi apparatus.
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 37 Central nervous system refers to the brain and spinal cord. 26
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 37 Autonomic nervous system refers to the part of the nervous system involved mainly in the regulation of visceral functions. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 40 Midsagittal section of the cranium. (photo) 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 42 Lateral view of the brain showing the four lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) (photo) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 44 Lateral view of the brain showing the major sulci and gyri and the frontal lobe. (photo) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 45 Lateral view of the brain showing the major sulci and gyri and the parietal lobe. (photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 46 Lateral view of the brain showing the major sulci and gyri and the temporal lobe. (photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 48 Midsagittal view of the brain showing major sulci and gyri. (photo) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 49 Fornix connects the temporal lobe (hippocampal formation) and the diencephalon. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 50 Midsagittal view of the brain showing components of the limbic lobe: cingulate gyrus; corpus callosum; septum pellucidum; parahippocampal gyrus; uncus; fusiform gyrus. (photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 51 Midsagittal view of the brain showing component of the brainstem. (Photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 52 Ventral view of the brain showing major sulci and gyri. (photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 53 Ventral view of the brain showing the cranial nerves. (Photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 54 Ventral view of the brain showing cranial nerves and the circle of Willis. (Photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 106 Schematic diagram showing the major structures on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongatta. (diagram) 52
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 107 Schematic diagram showing the major structures on the dorsal surface of the brain stem. (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 109 Schematic diagram showing the structures that form the roof and floor of the fourth ventricle. (diagram) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 119 Major output of the inferior olivary complex is to the cerebellum. 10
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 122 Medullary reticular formation afferent connections. (diagram) 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 123 Medullary reticular formation efferent connections. (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 123 Reticular formation is concerned with somatic and visceral motor functions as well as with consciousness, attention, and sleep. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 129 Vegas nerve (cranial nerve 10) 6
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 135 Sneezing reflex 6
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 135 Sneezing center is in the medulla oblongatta. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 136 Swallowing 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 136 Vomiting center 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 138 Medulla oblongata: neurotransmitters and neuropeptides 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 147 The pons is the part of the brain stem that lies between the medulla oblongatta caudally and the midbrain rostrally. 9
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 147 Dorsal surface of the pons is covered by the cerebellum. Dorsal surface of the pons forms the rostral portion of the floor of the fourth ventricle. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 150 Tegmentum is the phylogenetically older part of the pons and is composed largely of the reticular formation. 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 151 Nucleus locus ceruleus is a major source of the widespread noradrenergic innervation to most central nervous system regions. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 152 Reticular nuclei of pons (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 153 raphe nuclei 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 155 Auditory pathways schematic diagram (diagram) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 164 Facial nerve (CN VII) (diagram) 9
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 166 Superior colliculus responds reflexively for closure of eyelids in response to intense light or a rapidly approaching object. 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 191 Superior colliculus establishes reflexes for turning the neck and eyes in response to sound. 25
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 191 Inferior colliculus is a relay nucleus in the auditory pathway to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Plays a role in localization of a source of sound. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 199 Substantia nigra, afferent and efferent connections (diagram) 8
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 201 Superior colliculus is a laminated mass of gray matter that plays a role in visual reflexes and control of eye movement. 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 202 Superior colliculus, major afferent connections (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 204 Superior colliculus, major efferent connections (diagram) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 206 Superior colliculus, major nuclear groups (diagram) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 221 Saccadic eye movements (diagram) 15
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 231 Locked-in syndrome 10
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 235 Diencephalon -- the part of the central nervous system between the two hemispheres. Includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus. 4
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 237 Pineal gland -- endocrine gland located in the roof of the third ventricle. The function of the pineal gland is not well understood. The pineal gland usually calcified after the age of 16 years. 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 237 Thalamus is the largest component of the diencephalon. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 238 Thalamus major nuclear groups (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 238 Mamillary bodies -- small round swellings on the ventral surface of the hypothalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 239 Medial group of thalamic nuclei have reciprocal relationship with the prefrontal cortex. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 240 Major afferent and efferent connections of the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus. (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Lateral nucleus group of the thalamus 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Lateral dorsal nucleus of the thalamus is functionally part of the anterior group of thalamic nuclei, which collectively forms the limbic thalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Pulvinar nucleus is located in the posterior pole of the thalamus, overhanging the superior colliculus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Pulvinar is a relay station between subcortical visual centers and their respective association cortices in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Lesions of the pulvinar nucleus have been effective in the treatment of intractable pain. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Multimodal association thalamic nuclei do not receive a direct input from the long assending tracts. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Multimodal association thalamic nuclei input is mainly from other thalamic nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Multimodal association thalamic nuclei project mainly to the association areas of the cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Lateral group of thalamic nuclei are divided into dorsal and ventral subgroups. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 241 Lateral dorsal nucleus belongs to the modality-specific and limbic nuclei of the thalamus. It is functionally part of the anterior group. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 242 Ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus links the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. It belongs to the modality-specific and motor groups of the thalamic nuclei. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 243 Inputs from globus pallidus and substantia nigra to the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus are GABAergic inhibitory. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 243 Inputs from the cerebral cortex to the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus are excitatory. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 243 Major output of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus goes to the premotor cortices and to wide areas of the prefrontal cortex. It also has reciprocal connections with the intralaminar nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 244 Ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus is a major relay station in the motor pathways from the basal ganglia to the cerebral cortex. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 244 Ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus is involved in the regulation of movement. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 244 Medial part of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus is concerned with control voluntary eye, head, and neck movements. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 244 Lateral part of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus is concerned with control body and limb movements. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 244 Ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus as a major role in motor integration. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 244 Ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei together comprise the motor thalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Deep cerebellum nuclei constitute the major input to the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus.These fibers leave the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle and decussate in the mesencephalon. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Reciprocal relationship between the primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4) and the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Efferent fibers of the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus go primarily to the primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus. Other cortical targets include nonprimary somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex (Brodmann areas 5 and 7) and the premotor and supplementary motor cortices. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Parietal cortical targets of the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus play a role in decoding sensory stimuli that provide spatial information for targeted movements. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus, like the ventral anterior nucleus, is a major relay station in the motor system linking the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Lesions in the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus have been produced surgically to remove disorders of movement manifested by tremor. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus links the cerebellum with the cerebral cortex. It belongs to the modality-specific and motor groups of thalamic nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 245 Parkinsonian tremor. Four types of neurons in the in ventral thalamic nuclei group. (1) voluntary cells, (2) sensory cells, (3) combined cells, (4) no-response cells. (Table) 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 246 Activity in sensory cells lags behind tremor, while activity of combined sales leads the tremor. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 246 Ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus is located in the caudal part of the thalamus. It receives the long ascending tracts conveying sensory modalities (including taste) from the contralateral half of the body and face. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 246 Ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus belongs to the modality-specific and sensory groups of thalamic nuclei. It is subdivided into ventral posterior lateral and ventral posterior medial nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Output from the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus is to the primary somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus of the cortex (Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Projection from the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus to the cortex is somatopically organized in such a way that fibers from the ventral posterior medial nucleus project to the face area, while different parts of the ventral posterior lateral nucleus project to corresponding areas of body representation in the cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Intralaminar of nuclei of the thalamus are enclosed within the internal medullary lamina in the caudal thalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Reticular formation of the brainstem constitutes the major input to intralaminar nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Cerebellum fibers project on the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Collaterals of the system project on intralaminar nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Afferent fibers from the ascending pain pathways project largely on the ventral posterior nucleus of a thalamus but also on intralaminar nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Globus pallidus fibers project mainly on the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. Collaterals of this projection reach the intralaminar nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Cortical fibers to the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus arise primarily from the motor and premotor areas. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 In contrast to other thalamic nuclei, connections between the intralamina nuclei and cerebral cortex are not reciprocal. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the thalamus links the somatosensory neural system from the contralateral half of the body with the somatosensory cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 247 Ventral posterior medial nucleus links the somatosensory neural system from the contralateral face and taste system with the somatosensory cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 248 Major afferent and efferent connections of the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Reticular nucleus is a continuation of the reticular formation of the brain stem into the diencephalon. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Reticular nucleus is unique among thalamic nuclei in that its axons do not leave the thalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Intralamina nuclei and reticular nucleus collectively receive fibers from several sources, motor and sensory, and project diffusely to the cerebral cortex (through other thalamic nuclei). 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Intralamina, reticular, and midline nuclei belong to the nonspecific system of thalamic nuclei. They are concerned with arousal, motor control, and the awareness of sensory experiences. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Reticular nucleus of the thalamus plays a role in integrating and gating activities of thalamic nuclei. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Multisource inputs and diffuse cortical projections of intralaminar nuclei and reticular nucleus enable them to play a role in cortical arousal response. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 249 Intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus via basal ganglia connections are involved in motor control mechanisms, and via input from ascending pain-mediating pathways, are also involved in awareness of painful sensory experience. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 250 Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a relay thalamic nucleus in the visual system. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 250 LGN receives fibers from the optic tract conveying impulses from both retinae. LGN is laminated, and the inflow from each retina projects on different laminae (ipsilateral retina to laminae II, III, and V, contralateral retina to laminae I, IV, and VI). 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 250 Feedback fibers also a reach the LGN from the primary visual cortex (area 17) in the occipital lobes. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Modality-specific thalamic nuclei share the following characteristics: (1) receive direct inputs from long ascending sensory tracts (somatosensory, visual, auditory) or process information from basal ganglia, cerebellum, or the limbic system; (2) have reciprocal connections with well-defined cortical areas. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Multimodal associative group of thalamic nuclei receives no direct inputs from long ascending tracks and projects to association cortical areas. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Modality nonspecific and reticular groups receive inputs from the brainstem and reticular nuclei and have indirect and diffuse cortical projections. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Stimulation of the modality-specific group of nuclei elicits a cortical augmenting response. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Stimulation of the modality nonspecific nuclei elicits a cortical recruiting response. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Based on their function, thalamic nuclei are grouped into the following categories: motor, sensory, limbic. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Motor group of thalamic nuclei links the basal ganglia and cerebellum with the premotor and motor cortices. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Sensory group of thalamic nuclei links subcortical somatosensory, visual, and auditory systems with their respective cortical areas. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 251 Limbic group of thalamic nuclei is related to limbic structure. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 258 Thalamus, a part of the ascending reticular activating system, has a central role in the conscious state and attention. 7
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 259 Schematic diagram of a thalamic region (diagram) -- thalamus, lateral ventricle, third ventricle, fornix, corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, temporal lobe. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 275 Basal ganglia -- caudate, putamen, globus gallidus, nucleus accumbens. 16
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 275 Striatum -- caudate, putamen, globus pallidus 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 276 Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, Thalamus -- schematic diagram of major cortical and subcortical neural structures involved in movement, behavior, and cognition. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 277 Striatum refers to the caudate nucleus and putamen. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 279 The corticostriate projection comprises the most massive striate afferents. Almost all cortical areas contribute to this projection. 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 279 Corticostriatal fibers are topographically organized into three distinct striatal territories: (1) sensorimotor, (2) associative, and (3) limbic. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 279 Corticostriate pathways are somatotopically organized so that cortical association areas project preferentially to the caudate nucleus, whereas sensorimotor cortical areas preferentially project to the putamen. (p.598) 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 279 Corticoputaminal projections are further organize in that the cortical arm, leg, and face areas project to corresponding areas within the putamen. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 279 Schematic diagram of the direct and indirect corticostriate projections. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 280 Basal ganglia receives inputs from the cerebral cortex (major source) and subcortical structures. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 280 Basal ganglia project back to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 283 Striatum is the principal receptive structure of the basal ganglia. 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 283 Globus pallidus is the principal output structure of the basal ganglia. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 284 Simplified diagram of afferent and efferent connections of the basal ganglia. (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 285 Parallel (and largely segregated) pathways of the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex.(diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 285 Basal ganglia contain diverse neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 285 Motor loop pathway 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 286 Five anatomic and functional loops in parallel pathways of cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, cortex (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 287 Oculomotor loop pathway 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 287 Dorsolateral prefrontal loop pathway 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 287 Lateral orbitofrontal prefrontal loop pathway 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 287 Limbic loop pathway 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 287 Basal ganglia pathways (loops) are characterized by parallel, segregated, and closed connections, in which little, if any, intercommunication takes place. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Basal ganglia function in motor control. 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Basal ganglia role in cognition and emotion. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Basal ganglia motor function is subserved by the motor and oculomotor loops. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Basal ganglia cognitive function is subserved by the prefrontal loops. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Basal ganglia emotion function is subserved by the limbic loop. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Activity within the basal ganglia is initiated at cortical levels. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Basal ganglia are responsible for the automatic execution of a learned motor plan. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 As a motor skill is learned, the basal ganglia take over the role of automatically executing the learned strategy. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 When basal ganglia are damaged, the person must revert to a slower, less automatic, and less accurate cortical mechanism for motor behavior. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 290 Roles for the basal ganglia in motor control include the preparation for movement. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 291 The fact that basal ganglia neurons respond to stimuli colored by memory or significance indicates that the basal ganglia are involved with higher-order motor control. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 291 Another possible function of the basal ganglia is gating of sensorimotor processing. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 291 In Parkinson's disease, loss of dopamine (inhibitory) will allow cortical facilitation to stimulate the inhibitory basal ganglia output; decreases motor activity. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 291 In Huntington's chorea, loss of basal ganglia neurons results in a decrease in inhibitory output of the basal ganglia, with a resulting increase in motor system activity. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 291 In addition to their role in motor control, the basal ganglia subserve cognitive function. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 291 Loss of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system is associated with Parkinson's disease. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 292 Limbic loop of the basal ganglia may play a role in emotional and motivational processes, and the genesis of Tourette syndrome. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 292 Complementarity of basal ganglia and cerebellum in motor function. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 292 Basal ganglia function as context encoders, providing to the cerebral cortex information that could be useful in planning and gating of action. (p.326) 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 292 Cerebellum functions as a pattern generator and executor. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 292 Basal ganglia subserve roles in cognitive function, emotion, and motivation. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 304 Dorsal surface of the cerebellum. (photo) 12
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 305 Ventral surface of the cerebellum. (photo) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 312 Schematic diagram showing major sources of input to the cerebellum. 7
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 326 Basal ganglia function as detectors of specific contexts, providing to the cerebral cortex information that could be useful in planning and gating of action. (p.292) 14
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 326 Cerebellum functions in programming, execution, and termination of actions. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 338 Neocortex comprises 90% of the cerebral cortex in humans. 12
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 338 Allocortex is three layered and phylogenetically older. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 338 Mesocortex is found in much of the cingulate gyrus, entorhinal, parahippocampal and orbital cortices. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 339 Neurons of the cerebral cortex are of two functional categories: (1) principal (projection) neurons and (2) interneurons. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 339 Cerebral cortex has its full complement of neurons (10 to 20 billion) by the 18th week of intrauterine life. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 339 Pyramidal neurons -- apex of the pyramid is directed toward the cortical surface. Each pyramidal neuron has an apical dendrite directed toward the surface of the cortex and several horizontally oriented basal dendrites that arise from the base of the pyramid. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 339 Pyramidal neurons are found in all cortical areas except layer 1. They vary in size; most are between 10 and 50 m and height. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 Input to the cerebral cortex originates in four sites: (1) thalamus, (2) extrathalamic modulatory, (3) cortex of the same hemisphere (association fibers), (4) cortex of the contralateral hemisphere (commissural fibers). 4
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 Cortical input from the thalamus travels via two systems: Modality specific and nonspecific. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 Modality-specific thalamocortical system originates in modality-specific thalamic nuclei (e.g. ventral anterior, ventral lateral, ventral posterior) 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 Nonspecific thalamocortical system is related to the reticular system and originates in nonspecific thalamic nuclei (intralaminar, midline, and reticular nuclei). 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 Fibers of the nonspecific thalamocortical system project diffusely on all laminae. Intimately involved in arousal response and wakefulness. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 It was formally assumed that essentially all afferent to the cortex arose from the thalamus. Now visualize monoaminergic and cholinergic processes. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 343 All neurons in a vertical column are activated selectively by the same peripheral stimulus. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Corticothalamic pathway arises from cortical areas that receive thalamic projections and thus constitutes a feedback mechanism by which the cerebral cortex influences thalamic activity. 7
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Thalamocortical relationship is such that a thalamic nucleus that projects to a cortical area receives in turn a projection from that area. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Reciprocal connection examples include the dorsomedial thalamus nucleus and prefrontal cortex, anterior thalamic nucleus and cingulate cortex, ventrolateral thalami nucleus and motor cortex, posterioventral thalami nucleus and postcentral gyrus, medial geniculate nucleus and auditory cortex, and lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Corticothalamic input to the reticular thalamic nucleus is not reciprocal. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Reticular nucleus receives afferents from almost all cortical areas but does not project back to the cerebral cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Reticular nucleus receives collaterals from all thalamocortical and all corticothalamic projections. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Reticular nucleus is informed of activities passing in both directions between thalamus and cerebral cortex. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 350 Corticothalamic fibers descend in various parts of the internal capsule and enter the thalamus in one bundle known as the 'thalamic radiation', which also includes the reciprocal thalamocortical fibers. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 351 Thalamocortical relationships, thalamus and cortex (diagram) 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 428 Hippocampus (diagram) 77
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 430 Major types of neurons and the hippocampus.(diagram) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 430 Fornix, hippocampus connections (diagram) 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 434 Each fornix contains 1.2 million axons of pyramidal neurons. 4
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 435 Hippocampus has a low threshold for seizure (epileptic) activity. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 566 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is formed at the rate of 0.35 mL per minute (about 500 mL per day). Average volume in the adult is 130 mL, with 30 mL distributed in the ventricles and 100 mL in the subarachnoid space. 131
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 595 Corticospinal (pyramidal) tract -- the most important descending tract -- from its origin in the cerebral cortex it descends through all levels of the neuraxis except the cerebellum. 29
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 595 Corticospinal tract arises primarily from the motor (area 4) and premotor (area 6) cortices and passes through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 595 About 98% of fibers of the pyramidal track are crossed. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 595 Corticospinal tract is essential for skill and precision in movement and the execution of discrete fine finger movements. However, it cannot initiate these movements by itself. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 595 Corticopontocerebellar tract constitutes by far the largest component of the cortically-originating descending fiber system. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 595 It has been estimated that the corticopontocerebellar tract contains approximately 19 million fibers in contrast to the pyramidal tract, which contains approximately 1 million. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 596 Corticopontocerebellar tract is somatotopically organized. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 596 Corticopontocerebellar tract is one of several pathways by which the cerebral cortex influences the cerebellum; it plays a role in the rapid correction of movement. 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 598 Corticostriate pathways are somatotopically organized so that cortical association areas project preferentially to the caudate nucleus, whereas sensorimotor cortical areas preferentially project to the putamen. (p.279) 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 635 Fig A4-6, thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus, fornix, nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, claustrum, corpus callosum 37
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 636 Fig A4-7, Coronal section; midthalamus 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 637 Fig A4-9, Thalamus; dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus, lateral dorsal thalamic nucleus, internal capsule, ventral posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus, ventral posterior medial nucleus of thalamus, subthalamic nucleus. 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 639 Fig A4-14, Hippocampus 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 642 Fig A5-3, Principle inferior olive 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 643 Fig A5-5, Inferior Olive 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 644 Fig A5-7, Facial nerves 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 644 Fig A5-8, Trigeminal nerve 0
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 645 Fig A5-10, Trochlear nerve 1
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 647 Fig A5-13, Superior colliculus. 2
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy 650 Fig A5-19, Brainstem, basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, putamen 3
Afifi; Functional Neuroanatomy