Baddeley; Eysenck; Anderson; Memory
Book Page   Topic    
Baddeley,; Memory 3 Theories    serve to summarize our knowledge    in a simple and structured way    and help us to understand what we know.
Baddeley,; Memory 3 The aim of the present book is to outline what we know of the psychology of memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 4 In the 1930s, a German approach known as gestalt psychology began attempting to apply ideas developed in the study of perception to the understanding of human memory. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 5 People's cultural assumptions about the world depend on internal representations that are referred to as schemas. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 5 Schemas are internal representations that explain how our knowledge of the world is structured and influences the way in which new information is stored and subsequently recalled. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 7 In the early 1960s, investigators at Bell Laboratories analyzed the fleeting visual memory system, which subsequently became known as the iconic memory. 2
Baddeley,; Memory 9 Short-Term Memory and Working Memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 9 Short-term memory -- a term applied to the retention of small amounts of material over periods of a few seconds. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 9 Short-term memory (STM) is not limited to verbal material, and has been studied extensively for visual and spatial information, and much less extensively for smell and touch. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 10 Long-Term Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 10 Long-term memory makes a broad distinction between    explicit or declarative memory    and implicit or nondeclarative memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 10 Explicit Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 10 Explicit memory can be divided into two categories,    semantic memory    and episodic memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 11 Semantic memory refers to a knowledge of the world.    It goes beyond simply knowing the meaning of words    and extends to sensory attributes    and includes general knowledge of how society works,    e.g. what to do when you enter a restaurant. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 12 Implicit Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 14 Patient HM became densely amnesic following brain injury to treat his intractable epilepsy. 2
Baddeley,; Memory 14 HMs memory deficit was limited to episodic long-term memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 14 Neuroimaging Human Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 15 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans have become an important source of data in psychology. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 16 fMRI is safer than PET, being noninvasive of the body and not involving radioactivity. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 16 Finer-grained temporal monitoring of brain activity    is provided by the more recent development, magnetoencephalography (MEG),    in which tiny magnetic forces generated by neurons within the brain    are detected and located.    The ordered relationship in which different brain areas respond    can be recorded very precisely. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 19 Short-Term Memory 3
Baddeley,; Memory 20 Memory Span 1
Baddeley,; Memory 24 Free Recall 4
Baddeley,; Memory 27 Phonological Loop 3
Baddeley,; Memory 33 Visuospatial Short-Term memory 6
Baddeley,; Memory 33 Spatial Short-Term Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 36 Deficits in Verbal Short-Term Memory 3
Baddeley,; Memory 37 Deficits in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 39 Research studies have considered the characteristics of various STM systems. 2
Baddeley,; Memory 39 Verbal STM has been shown to be influenced by phonological similarity and by the length of the words being retained. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 39 The phonological loop hypothesis attempts to explain the findings within a broader working memory framework by assuming a temporary store and an articulatory rehearsal process that can be interrupted by articulatory suppression. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 39 Visual STM can be divided into visual and spatial memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 39 Memory for spatial location appears to show forgetting over a period of seconds,    while memory for visual objects does not. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 39 The number of features an object comprises does not seem to be obviously limited. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 39 Visual and spatial components have been proposed as part of the visuospatial sketchpad,    a component of working memory    that is a counterpart of the phonological loop. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 39 Neuropsychological studies have revealed the potential separation between verbal STM and both LTM and visual STM. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 41 Working Memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 44 Phonological Loop 3
Baddeley,; Memory 44 Phonological loop -- the term applied by Baddeley and Hitch to the component of their model responsible for the temporary storage is speech-like information. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 44 Visuospatial sketchpad -- a component of the Baddeley and Hitch model that is assumed to be responsible for the temporary maintenance of visual and spatial information. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 49 Visuospatial Sketchpad 5
Baddeley,; Memory 53 Central Executive 4
Baddeley,; Memory 56 Episodic Buffer 3
Baddeley,; Memory 58 The Baddeley Multicomponent Working Memory Model (year 2000)  (diagram) 2
Baddeley,; Memory 58 Individual Differences in Working Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 60 Theories of Working Memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 60 Cowan's Embedded Processess Theory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 63 Long-term working memory 3
Baddeley,; Memory 63 Neuroscience of Working Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 63 Single-cell recording approaches to working memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 64 Neuroimaging Working Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 69 Learning 5
Baddeley,; Memory 76 Repetition and Learning 7
Baddeley,; Memory 79 Implicit Learning 3
Baddeley,; Memory 79 Classical Conditioning 0
Baddeley,; Memory 81 Priming 2
Baddeley,; Memory 82 Procedural Learning 1
Baddeley,; Memory 85 Learning and Consciousness 3
Baddeley,; Memory 86 Explaining Implicit Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 86 Learning and the Brain 0
Baddeley,; Memory 88 Implicit Learning in the Brain 2
Baddeley,; Memory 88 Conditioning 0
Baddeley,; Memory 89 Priming 1
Baddeley,; Memory 90 Procedural Learning 1
Baddeley,; Memory 93 Episodic Memory 3
Baddeley,; Memory 106 Memory and the Brain 13
Baddeley,; Memory 113 Semantic Memory and Stored Knowledge 7
Baddeley,; Memory 113 Master chess players have between 10,000 and 100,000 groups of pieces (chunks) stored in long-term memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 113 Each chunk contains information about a given pattern of chess pieces on the board, and these chunks help players to relate a present game position to their knowledge of previous chess games and situations. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 113 Semantic Memory vs. Episodic Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 114 Distinguish between semantic memory (general knowledge about the world)    and episodic memory (memory for events occurring at a specific time in a specific place). 1
Baddeley,; Memory 114 In studies of patients with amnesia,    researchers found there was an impairment of episodic memory in all cases,    whereas many other patients had only modest problems with semantic memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 114 The impact of brain damage was much greater on episodic than on the semantic memory,    suggesting that the two types of memory are distinctly different from each other. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 115 There are important differences between semantic and episodic memory. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 115 There are many patients who show more retrograde amnesia for episodic memory than to semantic memory,    but also many who showed the opposite pattern. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 115 The different patterns of impairment    from patient to patient    suggest (but don't prove) that episodic and semantic memory    are different types of memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 115 In brain imaging studies of healthy participants performing various memory tasks, the left prefrontal cortex was more active during episodic than semantic encoding. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 115 The right prefrontal cortex was more active during episodic memory retrieval than during semantic memory retrieval. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 116 Numerous simple questions about semantic memory can be answered very rapidly by most people in about one second. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 116 Hierarchical Network Model 0
Baddeley,; Memory 116 One hypothesis was that semantic memory is organized into a series of hierarchical networks. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 117 It is hypothesized that property information is stored as high up in the hierarchy as possible to minimize the amount of information that needs to be stored in semantic memory. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 117 It is hypothesized that organization within semantic memory is based on a principle of cognitive economy. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 117 We often use semantic memory successfully by inferring the right answer. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 117 Inferential process for semantic memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 118 Typicality gradient -- the ordering of members of a category in terms of their typicality ratings. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 119 Rather than belonging to rigidly defined categories, it is much more realistic to assume that categories are loosely determined. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 119 Spreading Activation Model 0
Baddeley,; Memory 119 According to spreading activation theory,    semantic memory is organized on the basis of semantic relatedness or semantic distance. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 120 According to spreading activation theory, whenever a person sees,    hears,    or thinks about   a concept, the appropriate node in the semantic memory is activated. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 120 Spreading activation    spreads most strongly    to other concepts    that are closely related semantically,    and more weekly    to those that are more distant semantically. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 121 There is a facilitation    (or semantic priming) effect    for semantically related words. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 121 The spreading activation model    has generally proved more successful    than the hierarchical network model. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 121 The spreading activation model    typically doesn't make very precise predictions. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 121 Organization of Semantic Memory in the Brain 0
Baddeley,; Memory 121 Behavioral experiments can tell us much about the organization of semantic memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 122 Much of the research related to semantic memory involves brain-damaged patients. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 122 The pattern of impairment shown by brain-damaged patients    can provide useful information about the way in which knowledge of concepts is organized within the brain. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 122 Many brain-damaged patients have problems only with certain semantic categories. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 122 The most common pattern shown by patients with category-specific deficits is that their recognition performance (identifying objects from pictures) is worse on living    than on nonliving things. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 122 The general pattern of greater impairment    for living than for nonliving things    is much more common than the opposite pattern. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 123 Nearly all of the patients having a selective impairment for knowledge of living things    had damage to the anterior,    medial,    and inferior parts    of the temporal lobes. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 123 Living things are distinguished from each other mainly on the basis of their visual or perceptual properties (i.e. what they look like). 0
Baddeley,; Memory 123 Nonliving things are distinguished from each other mainly on the basis of their functional properties (i.e. what they are used for). 0
Baddeley,; Memory 123 There are three times as many visual units within the semantic system as there are functional units. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 123 Brain areas farther back in the brain in occipital,    posterior-temporal,    and posterior-parietal regions    are associated with processing of functional properties of objects. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 123 According to sensory-functional theory, information about objects in semantic memory is organized in terms of the distinction between sensory or visual properties and functional ones    rather than between living and non-living. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 124 Processing of perceptual information from both living and nonliving concepts was associated with activation of the left posterior inferior temporal lobe regions. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 124 Processing of nonperceptual information (e.g. functional attributes) was associated with activation of middle temporal lobe regions. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 124 The areas of the brain that were activated was determined by whether perceptual on non-perceptual information was being processed rather than whether the relevant object was living or nonliving. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 125 The various kinds of information we have about an object (e.g. what humans use it for, what it does, its visual properties, its taste) are distributed in different brain areas. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 125 In ways that remain mysterious, we somehow manage to integrate    all of these kinds of information    rapidly and automatically    when we think about    any given concept. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 128 Schemas 3
Baddeley,; Memory 128 A schema is a well integrated chunk of knowledge about the world, events, people, or actions. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 128 What we remember is influenced very much by the schematic knowledge we already possess. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 128 The schemas stored in semantic memory include what are often referred to as scripts and frames. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 128 Scripts deal with knowledge about events and consequences of events. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 128 Frames are knowledge structures referring to some aspect of the world containing fixed structural information and slots for variable information. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 128 Schemas allow us to form expectations,    e.g. in a restaurant, we expect to be shown a table, to be given a menu by the waitor or waitress, to order food and drink, etc. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 129 We have an excellent memory for unexpected events    such as a waiter spilling soup in a customer's lap. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 129 Schemas play an important role in reading and listening because they allow us to fill in the gaps in what we read or hear and thereby enhance our understanding. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 129 Schemas provide the basis for us to draw inferences as we read or listen. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 132 Our memory representations are often richer and more complex than is implied in schema theories. 3
Baddeley,; Memory 132 Disorders of Concept and Schema-based Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 132 Semantic dementia involves severe problems in accessing    the meaning of words and objects,    but leaves a good executive functioning in the early stages of deterioration. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 133 Scripts typically have a goal directed quality, and it is generally assumed that executive functioning within the prefrontal cortex is very useful in constructing and implementing goals. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 133 Some patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex seem to have particular problems with scripts. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 133 Although some research has suggested that prefrontal patients had as much stored information about actions as normal healthy controls,    prefrontal patients make many mistakes in ordering actions within a script    and then deciding which actions are most important    to the achievement of any given event. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 133 Some prefrontal patients have had particular problems with script-based knowledge    requiring assembling the actions within a script    in the optimal sequence. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 133 Patients with semantic dementia and healthy controls both detected as many sequencing errors as semantic ones. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 133 Temporo-frontal patients with attention deficits and poor executive functioning    failed to detect many sequencing errors as contrasted with semantic ones. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 There is an important distinction between semantic memory and episodic memory. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 134 The extent of anterograde and retrograde amnesia    for episodic and semantic memories    often differ considerably,    suggesting that the two types of memory are distinctly different. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 Brain imaging indicates that somewhat different brain areas are activated during learning, depending on whether the task involves episodic or semantic memory, and the same is true during retrieval. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 According to the hierarchical network model,    semantic memory is organized into numerous hierarchical networks. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 According to the spreading activation model,    activation of a given concept causes activation to spread most strongly to other concepts    that are closely related semantically. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 The spreading activation model explains the typicality effect and the effects of semantic priming. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 Attempts have been made to understand the organization of semantic memory by studying brain-damaged patients with category-specific deficits. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 Brain-damaged patients with category specific deficits often have much greater problems in identifying living as contrasted with nonliving things, but many exhibit more complex problems 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 According to sensory-functional theory,    visual properties of objects are stored in different regions of the brain    from their functional properties. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 The assumption that visual properties are especially important with living things    and functional properties with nonliving things    explains many research findings. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 An expanded theory has yielded a more complex multiple property approach in which sensory and functional properties was subdivided to produce several additional properties. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 The multiple property approach provides a more adequate account of the findings from brain-damaged patients than does sensory-functional theory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 Schematic knowledge is useful because it allow us to form appropriate expectations and to draw inferences to fill in the gaps in the information presented to us. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 134 Schematic knowledge causes distortions in memory    when what we read or hear    is inconsistent with that knowledge. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 137 Autobiographical Memory 3
Baddeley,; Memory 138 Autobiographical memories can play an important role in creating and maintaining our self representation. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 138 Elderly patients with memory problems are encouraged to build up a set of reminders of their earlier life based on photographs and personal memories -- items that bring back memories of their younger days. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 138 In depression, patients find it difficult to recollect positive life experiences when depressed,    whereas negative recollections are more readily available,    a retrieval effect known as mood-congruent memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 142 People tend to recall few autobiographical memories from the first five years of life, an effect termed infantile amnesia. 4
Baddeley,; Memory 142 A number of interpretations of infantile amnesia had been proposed,    including the late development of the hippocampus, and the undeveloped nature during infancy of a coherent self,    something that is gradually built up    on the basis of memories and experiences. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 144 A Theory of Autobiographical Memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 144 One researcher defines autobiographical memory as a system that retains knowledge concerning the experienced self,    the "me." 0
Baddeley,; Memory 144 Autobiographical memory    is always addressed by the    content of the memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 144 Recollective experiences    occur when our autobiographical knowledge,    our personal semantic memory,    retains access    to associated episodic memories. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 144 Recollective experiences are transitory and are constructed dynamically on the basis of the autobiographical knowledge base. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 145 The autobiographical knowledge base    ranges from very broad-brush representations of lifetime periods    to sensory-perceptual episodes,    which are rapidly lost. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 145 The whole system of consciousness depends on the interaction between the autobiographical knowledge base and the working self. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 145 Working self is a concept to account for the way in which autobiographical knowledge is accumulated and used. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 145 The working self is assumed to play a similar role in autobiographical memory    to that played by working memory in cognition more generally. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 145 Working self comprises a complex set of active goals and self images. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 146 The autobiographical knowledge base has a broadly hierarchical structure, with an overall life story being linked to a number of broad themes. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 146 Autonoetic consciousness is the capacity to reflect on our thoughts. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 146 Accessing detailed knowledge of autonoetic consciousness tends to be relatively slow, typically taking several seconds,    whereas access to semantic memory is often performed almost immediately. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 146 Patients with frontal lobe damage can have difficulty both in accessing autobiographical memories and also, once accessed, in evaluating them, or perhaps more precisely in failure to evaluate. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 146 Autonoetic consciousness -- a term proposed for self awareness, allowing the rememberer to reflect on the contents of episodic memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 147 Flashbulb Memories 1
Baddeley,; Memory 147 Flashbulb memory --  the detailed and apparently highly accurate memory of a dramatic experience. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 147 People do report very vivid recollections of the point at which they remember hearing about major disasters, e.g. death of Martin Luther King, the Challenger space disaster, the World Trade Center attack. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 148 Social and Emotional Factors in Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 148 We tend to reconstruct our memories    rather than simply calling them up. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 148 Memory in general, and autobiographical memory in particular, is likely to be influenced by our hopes and needs. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 148 A tendency to place ourselves center-stage    probably plays a part in our memories, perhaps because it helps us maintain our self-esteem. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 148 We readily accept praise    but tend to be skeptical of criticism. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 148 We are inclined to take credit for success when it occurs    but deny responsibility for failure. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 149 We are rather good at selectively forgetting failure    and remembering success and praise. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 150 Recovered Memories 1
Baddeley,; Memory 150 A number of therapists assert that abuse as a child can lead to a range of subsequent adult psychological and emotional problems that result directly from repression of memory of the abuse. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 151 False memory syndrome 1
Baddeley,; Memory 151 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 0
Baddeley,; Memory 151 PTSD can follow from situations of extreme stress such as rape, near drowning, or a horrific traffic accident. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 151 PTSD often involves "flashbacks," extremely vivid memories of the scene of the initial terror. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 151 PTSD might be accompanied by nightmares and a more general state of anxiety. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 Do flashbacks represent a different kind of memory? A distinction has been suggested between verbally accessible memory, which links with the normal memory system, and situationally accessible memory, which is highly detailed when it occurs in the flashback but cannot be called to mind intentionally. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 152 The precise mechanism underlying memory disturbance and PTSD remains uncertain. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 Incidental stimuli or thoughts can act as a conditional stimulus that can trigger off the emotional response, bringing back the associated memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 Given an equivalent level of stress, not everyone develops PTSD, and those who do sometimes recover spontaneously. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 The response of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to stress may influence PTSD. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 In a threatening situation, the amygdala this signals the ANS to release adrenaline and cortisol, stress hormones that alert the organism for flight or fight. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 When the danger passes, the brain normally signals the adrenal glands to stop producing stress hormones, gradually drained the body back to normal. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 152 In PTSD patients, the corrective process is reduced, leading to a more prolonged period of stress. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 153 Involuntary memories 1
Baddeley,; Memory 153 Through flashbacks that occur in PTSD represents a different kind of memory? The flashback memory differs greatly from the reconstructive view of memory that is associated with normal remembering. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 153 Reappearance hypothesis -- under certain circumstances, such as flashbulb memory and PTSD, memories can be created that later reappeared in exactly the same form. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 155 Researchers have concluded that flashbacks that are observed and PTSD do not comprise a special type of memory but have the same characteristics as recurrent memories in the normal course of life, and that both reflect the same basic principles as are found across all types of autobiographical memory. 2
Baddeley,; Memory 155 Psychogenic Amnesia 0
Baddeley,; Memory 156 Amnesia is most common in association with extreme emotion. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 156 Amnesia is not accepted as a mitigating factor in UK law, or in many other countries. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 156 Multiple Person Disorder 0
Baddeley,; Memory 156 The idea that one person could contain two or more very different personalities was popularized by Robert Louis Stevenson's book Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 157 Organically Based Deficits in Autobiographical Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 157 Organically based amnesia differs from psychogenic amnesia    in that a sense of personal identity is rarely lost,    whereas problems in orientation in time and place are very common. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 158 Autobiographical Memory and the Brain 1
Baddeley,; Memory 158 Confabulation 0
Baddeley,; Memory 158 Confabulation occurs when the autobiographical information is false    but not intentionally misleading. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions 1
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions are patently false beliefs about the patient and the world. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions can be highly elaborated and very persistent. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions differ from confabulation, which tends to be temporary in nature and often lacks coherence. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Whereas confabulations tend to be associated with frontal lobe damage,    delusions tend to occur more frequently in schizophrenia. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions can appear to be fantastic in nature. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Auditory hallucinations often occur in patients with schizophrenia. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions can be highly elaborated, involving beings from other planets, and are often paranoid in nature, with patients believing their mind is being controlled from outside, by the government or foreign powers. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Delusions can include belief that the patient is a reincarnation of Jesus Christ. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Anatomical Basis of Autobiographical Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Researchers have found that the early stages of autobiographical memory involve the left prefrontal cortex,    presumably reflecting the executive processes involved in evoking the memory,    followed by activation that spread back to the occipital and temporal lobes,    consistent with an important role for visual imagery. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 159 Research supports a distinction between episodic and semantic aspects of autobiographical memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 163 Retrieval 4
Baddeley,; Memory 163 "On the Tip of the Tongue" 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 Retrieval Process 2
Baddeley,; Memory 165 During retrieval, we usually seek a particular memory -- a particular fact, idea, or experience, often called the target memory or the target trace. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 The snippets of information that allow you to access a memory are known as retrieval cues, or simply cues. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 Traces of memory are believed to be linked up to one another by connections that are usually called associations or links. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 Associations are synaptic efficacy linkages between traces that vary in strength. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 Retrieval is a progression from one or more cues to a target memory, via associative connections. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 Many things can serve as cues; the smell of peas might remind you of last night; or the song on the radio might be the same one you played while dining on peas. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 Any aspect of the content of the memory can serve as a reminder that could access the experience, a property known as content addressable memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 165 The neural network is essentially a mental "search engine," but we can search with just about any type of information. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 Each memory has an internal state of its own, reflecting how "excited" or "active" it is, a state referred to as the memory's activation level. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 166 A memory trace's activation level increases when something related to it is perceived in the world. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 A memory trace's activation persists for some time, even after attention has been removed. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 Memories    automatically spread activation    to other memories to which they are associated. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 Spreading activation is like "energy" flowing through connections    linking traces. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 The amount of activation spread from the cue to an associate is larger the stronger the association, and activation is spread in parallel to all associates. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 If the target    accumulates enough activation    from the cue,    it will be retrieved,    even though other associates might be activated as well. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 The idea that traces    have activation that spreads    is central to many theories of memory,    and provides a useful way of thinking about how to cues    access memories. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 Retrieval is a progression from one or more cues to the target memory,    via associative connections    linking them together,    through a process of spreading activation. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 Retrieval is less effective    if cues are present, but not attended,    or not attended enough. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 Many theories assume that the activation given to a concept    increases with attention. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 166 If people are given a secondary task to perform during retrieval, they are distracted,    and the retrieval usually grows worse, especially if the secondary task requires them to pay attention to related materials. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 169 Encoding specificity principle. 3
Baddeley,; Memory 169 For a cue to be useful,    it needs to be present at encoding,    and encoded with the desired trace. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 169 Cues that are specifically encoded with a target are more powerful even if they might seem to be less good than other cues that have a pre-existing relationship with the target. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 169 We remember what we experience,    and we access memory    by using a fragment of that experience    as a key to the whole. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 169 Associations vary in strength,    and it is the strength that determines the rate    at which activation spreads between a cue and a target. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 169 If the association between a cue and the target is poor,    retrieval failure might occur. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 170 Retrieval success depends on how associated the cues are to the target,    which depends on the time and attention    we spent encoding the association. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 170 Having two cues is often far more beneficial than you would expect by simply combining the probability of retrieving the target from each cue separately. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 170 It is useful to encode information    elaboratively. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 170 Elaboration    associates the material    to many cues that might be used for later retrieval. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 176 Incidental Context in Episodic Memory Retrieval 6
Baddeley,; Memory 176 Context dependent memory -- memory benefits when the spatio-temporal, mood, physiological, or cognitive context at retrieval matches that at encoding. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 176 Several types of context dependent memory exists, including environmental,    mood,    and state-dependent memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 176 Environmental Context Dependent Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 177 State Dependent Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 178 Aspects of our physiological state are encoded incidentally as part of the episode experience,    and re-creation of that state at retrieval    helps memory. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 178 Mood-Congruent and Mood-Dependent Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 178 Mood congruent memory    -- negative mood makes negative memories    more readily available than positive, and vice versa. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 179 Cognitive Context-Dependent Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 179 Mood dependent memory -- a form of context dependent effect whereby what is learned in a given mood, whether positive, negative, or neutral, is best recalled in that mood. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 180 Reconstructive Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 180 The term reconstructive memory refers to the active and inferential aspect of retrieval. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 180 There certainly exists an automatic retrieval process whereby information "pops up" for no obvious reason. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 181 Reconstructive processes often lead to errors in recollection. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 181 When veridical recall is essential (e.g. eyewitness memory), reconstructive errors can have grave consequences. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 181 Recognition Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 182 Recognition memory -- a person's ability to correctly decide whether they have been encounted a stimulus previously in a particular context. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 182 Frequently our intention is not to generate a memory, but to make a decision about whether we have previously encountered a particular stimulus pattern. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 182 Unlike recall, recognition presents the intact stimulus,    and hence requires a judgment:    did you see this stimulus in a certain context? 0
Baddeley,; Memory 182 Detractors, lures, or foils, are akin to other members of the lineup who the police think are innocent. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 182 We need to consider people's tendencies for guessing when making a recognition judgment. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 183 Signal detection theory as a model of a recognition memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 183 Signal detection theory provides a useful way of thinking about recognition that comes with tools necessary to distinguish    true memory and guessing. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 183 Signal detection theory proposes that memory traces have strength values that reflect their activation in memory,    which dictates how familiar they seem. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 183 Memory traces are thought to vary in their familiarity,    depending on how much attention the item received at encoding    or how many times it was repeated. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 186 Familiarity-based recognition -- a fast, automatic recognition process based on the perception of a memory's strength. 3
Baddeley,; Memory 186 The familiarity process is characterized as fast and automatic, yielding as output a perception of the memory's strength, without the recall of particulars. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 186 Recollection -- the slower, more attention-demanding component of recognition memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 186 The recollection process is slow and more attention demanding,    much more like the recall process of generating information about the context of experiencing the stimulus. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 187 Recollection is a controlled, attention-demanding process. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 187 Groups who have diminished attention, such as older adults and patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex,    often show deficits in recollection,    but an intact sense of familiarity    for recently seen stimuli. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 187 Information about how familiar a stimulus seems    is retrieved much more quickly    than information necessary for recollection,    consistent with the view that familiarity judgments reflect an automatic process. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 191 Incidental Forgetting 4
Baddeley,; Memory 196 Factors that Discourage Forgetting 5
Baddeley,; Memory 198 Factors that Encourage Incidental Forgetting 2
Baddeley,; Memory 198 Passage of time as a cause for getting 0
Baddeley,; Memory 201 Interference phenomena 3
Baddeley,; Memory 202 Retroactive interference 1
Baddeley,; Memory 204 Proactive interference 2
Baddeley,; Memory 206 Retrieval-induced Forgetting 2
Baddeley,; Memory 209 Interference Mechanisms 3
Baddeley,; Memory 209 Associative blocking 0
Baddeley,; Memory 210 Associative unlearning 1
Baddeley,; Memory 211 Inhibition as a cause of forgetting 1
Baddeley,; Memory 217 Motivated Forgetting 6
Baddeley,; Memory 218 Life is Good, Or Memory Makes it So 1
Baddeley,; Memory 219 Terminology in research on Motivated Forgetting 1
Baddeley,; Memory 229 Extreme Emotional Distress 10
Baddeley,; Memory 231 Factors that Predict Memory Recovery 2
Baddeley,; Memory 231 Passage of Time 0
Baddeley,; Memory 233 Repeated retrieval attempts 2
Baddeley,; Memory 235 Cue reinstatement 2
Baddeley,; Memory 237 Recovered Memories of Trauma -- Instances of Motivated Forgetting? 2
Baddeley,; Memory 245 Amnesia 8
Baddeley,; Memory 248 Anteriorgrade Amnesia 3
Baddeley,; Memory 250 Theories of Amnesia 2
Baddeley,; Memory 255 Retrograde Amnesia 5
Baddeley,; Memory 259 Traumatic Brain Injury 4
Baddeley,; Memory 267 Memory in Childhood 8
Baddeley,; Memory 267 Most people remember very little (if anything) about what occurred before the age of two or three. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 267 Research studies of autobiographical memory suggest a dearth of memories before the age of about 5 years. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 268 Memory in Infants 1
Baddeley,; Memory 272 Cognitive Neuroscience 4
Baddeley,; Memory 272 For implicit memory, there is reasonably good agreement that parts of the striatum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem are all involved in implicit learning and memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 272 The implicit memory structures    mature very early in life. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 272 There is evidence of implicit memory    shortly after birth. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 272 Declarative memory depends heavily on structures in the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 272 Much of the declarative memory brain system is formed before birth.    However, the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus formation has only about 70% of the adult number of cells at birth. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 The dentate gyrus continues to develop until about the end of the first year of life,    and other parts of the hippocampal formation might not be fully developed until the child is between 2 and 8 years of age. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 273 The late-developing parts of the hippocampal formation could help to explain why declarative memory continues to develop over the early years of life. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 Brain areas    other than the hippocampus are also involved in declarative memory, e.g. the prefrontal cortex, which is known to be involved in memories after a delay. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 The density as synapses in the prefrontal cortex    increases substantially at about 8 months of age,    and continues to increase until the infant is 15-24 months of age. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 There is rapid myelination of axons within the central nervous system during the first year of life. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 Myelination is important because it allows infants to process stimuli more rapidly and efficiently. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 Developmental Changes in Memory during Childhood 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 Young children show considerable advances in declarative memory over the first 2 or 3 years of life. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 There is overwhelming evidence that the development of declarative memory    continues for many years after infancy, at least until adolescence. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 273 Development of Declarative Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 274 Metamemory -- knowledge about one's own memory and an ability to regulate its functioning. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 277 The main component of the working memory system all increase in capacity during childhood. 3
Baddeley,; Memory 277 Verbatim and Gist Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 279 Declarative vs. Implicit Memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 279 Declarative memory becomes markedly better over the years,    but there are generally very small effects of age on implicit memory. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 280 Implicit memory involves more basic processes than declarative memory, and so is less affected by children's developing cognitive skills and abilities. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 280 Autobiographical Memory and Infantile Amnesia 0
Baddeley,; Memory 283 Infantile Amnesia 3
Baddeley,; Memory 283 Cognitive Self 0
Baddeley,; Memory 284 The development of the cognitive self    late in the second year of life    provides a new framework around which memories can be organized. 1
Baddeley,; Memory 284 With the development of the cognitive self, we witness the emergence of autobiographical memory    and the end of infantile amnesia. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 284 The cognitive self appears shortly before the onset of autobiographical memory, around or shortly after children's second birthdays. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 284 Autobiographical memories are most likely to be remembered for very long periods of time if they are rehearsed frequently,    and young children simply don't engage in much rehearsal of remembered information. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 284 Social Cultural Theory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 284 Language is important in part because we use language    to communicate our memories. 0
Baddeley,; Memory 285 Children as Witnesses 1
Baddeley,; Memory 286 How accurately do children recall events? 1
Baddeley,; Memory 293 Memory and Aging 7
Baddeley,; Memory 296 Working Memory and Aging 3
Baddeley,; Memory 296 Short-term memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 298 Aging and Long-Term Memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 298 Episodic Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 300 Remembering and Knowing 2
Baddeley,; Memory 301 Prospective memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 302 Semantic memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 303 Implicit learning and memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 304 Use It or Lose It? 1
Baddeley,; Memory 305 Theories of Aging 1
Baddeley,; Memory 307 The Aging Brain 2
Baddeley,; Memory 309 Alzheimer's Disease 2
Baddeley,; Memory 311 Episodic memory 2
Baddeley,; Memory 311 Forgetting 0
Baddeley,; Memory 312 Implicit Memory 1
Baddeley,; Memory 312 Working Memory in Alzheimer's Disease 0
Baddeley,; Memory 317 Eyewitness Testimony 5
Baddeley,; Memory 318 Major factors influencing Eyewitness Accuracy 1
Baddeley,; Memory 320 Remembering what you expected to see 2
Baddeley,; Memory 321 Leading questions 1
Baddeley,; Memory 324 Individual differences 3
Baddeley,; Memory 325 Eyewitness confidence 1
Baddeley,; Memory 326 Influence of anxiety and violence 1
Baddeley,; Memory 328 Remembering Faces 2
Baddeley,; Memory 329 How well do we remember faces? 1
Baddeley,; Memory 330 Holistic processing 1
Baddeley,; Memory 332 Unconscious transference 2
Baddeley,; Memory 332 Verbal overshadowing 0
Baddeley,; Memory 333 Cross-race effect 1
Baddeley,; Memory 334 Police Procedures with Eyewitnesses 1
Baddeley,; Memory 334 Lineups 0
Baddeley,; Memory 334 Interviewing witnesses 0
Baddeley,; Memory 343 Prospective Memory 9
Baddeley,; Memory 357 Improving Your Memory 14
Baddeley,; Memory 357 Techniques to Improve Memory 0
Baddeley,; Memory 358 Mnemonic aids 1
Baddeley,; Memory 360 Memory experts 2
Baddeley,; Memory 361 Natural vs. Strategists 1
Baddeley,; Memory 363 Mnemonic techniques 2
Baddeley,; Memory 363 Visual Imagery Mnemonics 0
Baddeley,; Memory 368 Why do mnemonic techniques work? 5
Baddeley,; Memory 374 Learning vocabulary 6
Baddeley,; Memory 376 Learning verbatim 2
Baddeley,; Memory 377 Attention, Interest, and Knowledge 1
Baddeley,; Memory 378 Motivation 1