Calvin; Neil's Brain
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Calvin; Neil's Brain 52 PET images, seeing words, hearing words, speaking words, generating words - (illustrations)
Calvin; Neil's Brain 60 Woodrow Wilson suffered a right-brain stroke during the Versailles Conference just after World War I. It did not paralyze him, but his fellow statesmen noticed that his personality seemed to change overnight; he became harsh and vindictive, whereas earlier he had been farsighted and consiliatory. He also became more socially outgoing rather than showing his usual reticence. Then a few weeks later, he suffered another stroke that paralyzed his left side. 8
Calvin; Neil's Brain 60 Woodrow Wilson couldn't argue effectively for League of Nations membership before Congress. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 60 Woodrow Wilson had suffered a series of strokes, starting at age 39 when he was a history professor at Princeton. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 61 By far the strangest aspect of right parietal lobe damage is what neurologist now call "denial of illness." 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 61 When Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas suffered a right brain stroke in 1974, he denied his illness, even issuing a press release that suggested his left arm had been injured in a fall. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 62 Many other features, such as defective body image, are associated with the right brain damage. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 62 Right brain winds up with what is seen by both eyes on the left side of the visual world.  Some patients with right brain strokes tend to ignore anything on the left side of the visual world. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 65 Unusually good function of the right brain is said to characterize those who excel in the visual arts: painters, sculptors, architects, moviemakers. 3
Calvin; Neil's Brain 65 Deaf patients using sign language    are just as impaired with left-brain strokes as the rest of us,    and their sign language is just as unimpaired by a right-brain strokes as ours is. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 65 People have wondered if the pictographs of some Asian languages involve the right brain.  But a language, no matter how it is implemented, seems to be a language -- even for pictographs or hand gestures. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 65 Some emotional aspects of prosody --    the way your voice  rises at the beginning of a question or falls at the end of a sentence --    are affected by right brain strokes. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 65 People with right-brain strokes    sometimes talk in a more monotone    than they did before. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 66 Right-brain strokes and left-brain strokes have different symptoms. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 66 Left-brain for language,    right brain for spatial skills. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 66 For every patient who has bilateral or right brain language, they are 13 with left brain language.  Yet, lateralization of spatial skills to the right brain is not the reverse.  Nothing there is a strongly lateralized as even six to one. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 68 Right temporal lobe    is interested in faces. 2
Calvin; Neil's Brain 70 Right cerebral hemisphere --    extracts facial features;    associates features with biography; proper names.  (diagram) 2
Calvin; Neil's Brain 70 Reading the emotional state of another member of your species is probably more important for sexual selection than for staying alive. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 71 A series of steps in recognizing a face as a familiar person. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 71 One of the higher-order visual areas,    running along the underside of the temporal lobe,    is particularly good at extracting facial features    such as eyebrows. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 71 Front of the temporal lobe    is thought to be involved with storing biographical information    and proper names. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 71 An association area in the temporal lobe relates facial features to biographical information. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 71 Although areas of the brain have specialties, information is usually stored redundantly over a wide area. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 71 Removing the front end of one temporal lobe still leaves the other temporal tip. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 72 Right-brain mechanisms in mathematics; extremely gifted in mathematics, regardless of schooling or environmental emphasis, most of whom are male. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 72 Patients with Broca's aphasia can often say words that they can't speak. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 72 Music    depends on both sides of the brain. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 72 Disturbance of musical abilities    in professional musicians    usually takes left-brain damage. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 As you gain proficiency in music,    it is increasingly organized like a language,    dependent on your left brain. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 Activity in neurons in the temporal lobe    while patients listen to music.    Short recordings of classical music caused activity to decrease.     Classical music may be soothing. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 In music with a pronounced rhythm,    activity of some neurons was entrained by the beat,    just as if the neurons were clapping in unison. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 In rock music with a heavy beat,    the activity of neurons usually increases,    and their firing patterns become more emphatic. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 Some researchers, commenting half-seriously about rock music, say that neurons are firing in the "bursting" pattern    reminiscent of that seen in recordings from epileptic areas. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 Language    is not solely a function of the left hemisphere,    but the changes after right-brain strokes are more subtle    than the dramatic language changes seen in left-brain strokes. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 When you hear a sentence,    you have to make a mental model    for what that string of sounds represents.     A full understanding of an utterance    may well involve many right-brain functions. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 73 Spontaneous speech    of right-brain stroke patients    is often rambling. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 74 Left-brain strokes causing aphasia. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 74 While the left brain may be more involved with the building blocks of language, the right brain is quite helpful in interpreting it all. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 79 Paul's vision on the road to Damascus;    van Gogh;    Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels;    Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland;    possible temporal lobe epileptics. 5
Calvin; Neil's Brain 79 Grand mal -- generalized seizures    start out the same way as focal seizures,    but they recruit more circuitry    and progress farther through the brain.     Patient will stiffen all over. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 80 To form generalized seizures,    focal seizures co-opt the selective attention circuitry.    Some neurons seem to have connections to everywhere,     such as those neural circuits that help keep you awake and alert.    Seizure spreads into that system and then gets broadcast everywhere. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 81 Selective attention seems like a spotlight,    highlighting some aspects of the sensory environment while keeping others in the background. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 81 Selective attention    is perhaps the closest we will come    to finding one system in the brain    that determines the current content    of our conscious experience. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 81 Various parts of the frontal lobe and brainstem are used in orienting toward a stimulus. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 81 Staying alert    for a particular type of stimulus. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 82 Both anterior and posterior attention systems    have many subcortical partners in doing their job,    especially in the thalamus.     Brainstem mechanisms for arousal from sleep    are a fairly general system,    but the system in the thalamus is more specific. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 85 Paying attention conflicts with recalling things from short-term memory. 3
Calvin; Neil's Brain 86 Immediate working memory,    short-term post-distractional memory,    and long-term consolidated memory    seem to involve different brain mechanisms. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 86 When selective attention is not directing you toward the external world, you can browse through memories, either in search of something specific, or more free-form retrieval called fantasy or daydreaming. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 Defective functions in the selective attention circuits seem to be the basis for attention deficit syndrome. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 In attention deficit syndrome,    a child has difficulty sustaining attention.    This might involve selective attention circuits passing through the left thalamus. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 In autism,    there is an overall limitation in attending to the external environment,    especially in attending to the presence of other people    and perhaps to verbal information. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 Autism is coupled with severe distractibility    and an intense focusing of intention    on a limited selection of environmental features. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 Many autistic children    are also mentally retarded. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 Sometimes autism    is a result of brain damage    in early life. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 87 Autism seems to have a genetic components.    Maternal twins are likely to be autistic;    fraternal twins are not. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 89 Dendrites of each neuron    rise up through a few layers of the cortex    connecting with many different input sources. 2
Calvin; Neil's Brain 89 Each neuron    is a node    where thousands of circuits converge. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 89 Each neuron    sums-up    thousands of influences on its dendrites    and responds by sending out signals on its axon. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 89 The fourth layer gets most of its inputs from the thalamus. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 90 Paths in and out of the cerebral cortex - (illustration) 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 90 Layer IV is typically the input layer. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 90 Layers V and VI are typically output layers. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 90 Layers I - III provide interconnections, sideways connections. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 92 Corticocortical connections are organized in columns; corpus callosum - (illustration) 2
Calvin; Neil's Brain 92 About 148,000 neurons beneath a square millimeter of cortical surface;    organized into minicolumns    of about 100 neurons each,    which are sometimes organized into macrocolumns    of about 300 minicolumns. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 93 Korbinian Brodmann    early in the 20th century    defined 52 cortical areas    based upon neuron size    and relative thickness    of the cortical layers. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 94 Cortex diagram of pyramidal neurons - (illustration) 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 105 Temporal summation    and spatial summation    of neuron inputs - (illustration) 11
Calvin; Neil's Brain 106 Inhibitory synapses oppose excitatory synapses. Inhibitory typically have a pore that doesn't pass sodium ions, just potassium or chloride ions; resulting in a potential that opposes the excitatory. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 106 About 40% of a neuron's inputs are inhibitory. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 106 It's all a balancing act    between excitatory and inhibitory. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 107 More than a dozen types    of pores into neurons. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 107 When neurons become active,    they need more oxygen and glucose.    Measure the increased blood flow    with PET scans    and functional MRI. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 108 Temporary changes    in synaptic strength    such as synaptic depression and facilitation    probably underlie our fading short-term memories. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 108 Following a burst of impulses, any pulse in the next minute or so may release more than the standard amount of neurotransmitter. When longer times and more impulses are involved, it can lead to Long Term Potentiation (LTP). 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 108 Some short-term changes provide the scaffoling for making permanent changes. 0
Calvin; Neil's Brain 226 Association cortex --    all the neocortex except for the primary sensory and motor areas. 118
Calvin; Neil's Brain 227 Coherence between different brain areas,    higher frequency range about 25 to 70 Hz,    links together the separate areas. 1
Calvin; Neil's Brain 282 Hebbian cell assembly --    spatiotemporal pattern of neuronal activity. 55