Suzanne Corkin; Permanent Present Tense - Amnesic Patient (H. M.) Henry Molaison
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Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 3 Henry was born on February 26, 1926, in Manchester, Connecticut.
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 20 On Tuesday, August 25, 1953, neurosurgeon William Beecher Scoville operated on patient Henry Gustave Molaison at Hartford Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut in an effort to control his epileptic seizures, which were occurring daily in spite of massive medication. 17
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 20 Scoville was trained in, and a strong proponent of, psychosurgery. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 20 Scoville believed that surgery offered a radical but potentially transformative solution for desperate cases. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 20 Psychosurgery was considered a valid, if experimental, treatment for numerous psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety neuroses, and obsessional states. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 20 When most people think about psychosurgery, they think of frontal lobotomy, disconnecting the frontal lobes from the rest of the brain. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 21 Henry's seisures were becoming more frequent, putting Henry's life at risk, and he was no longer responding satisfactorily to even massive doses of medication. To Scoville, no doubt, surgery seen the last best option. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 22 In the 1930s, psychosurgery began on a grand scale. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 27 By the late 1950s it became clear that lobotomies were hazardous. 5
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 28 In the later 20th century, newly synthesized antipsychotic medications began to replace psychosurgery as a form of treatment. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 28 At the time of Henry's operation, psychosurgery was still in vogue. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 29 Because of the severity of Henry's epilepsy and inability to control it, even with high levels of medication, Scoville thought he would be a good candidate for what he later called a "frankly experimental operation." 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 41 Montr้al Neurological Institute opened its doors in 1934. "The Neuro" epitomized the wisdom of advancing science, teaching, and patient care under a single umbrella. Around the Institute, Wilder Penfield became known as "The Chief"; he was a skilled and innovative neurosurgeon as well as a strong leader. 12
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 41 Penfield develop the approach of operating on epilepsy patients while they were awake and conscious so that he could pinpoint the abnormal tissue responsible for their seizures – the technique became known as the Montr้al Procedure. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 41 Brenda Milner, who became a crucial player in the development of memory science, was a graduate student in psychology at McGill University when she began her collaboration with Penfield. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 41 Born in Manchester, England, in 1918, Brenda Milner studied experimental psychology during her undergraduate years at the University of Cambridge. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 41 Milner moved to Montr้al in 1944 and two years later had the distinction of being a student in the first seminar at McGill University taught by Donnell O. Hebb, a  physiological psychologist who was highly influential in the science of learning and memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 41 In 1947 Brenda Milner became Donnell O. Hebb's graduate student. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 42 Penfield operated on a great many epileptic patients to control their seizures. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 Penfield's cases show that the anatomical foundation of amnesia is a loss of function in both hippocampi. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 If a person has damage to only one hippocampus, either the left of the right, the result is not catastrophic. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 Subsequent research on hundreds of patients has taught us that the hippocampus can be removed safely on one side with only minor memory impairment, as long as the other hippocampus is intact. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 One hippocampus by itself apparently can compensate largely for its missing twin, suggesting that the two structures share a general capability for making memories. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 The left temporal lobe is specialized to process verbal information, and the right temporal lobe   visual-spatial information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 Anatomical bridges that cross the brain from left to right and right to left give each temporal lobe access to the specialized information from the other side. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 43 When one hippocampus is missing, the remaining one can engage multiple kinds of knowledge, both verbal and nonverbal, to support satisfactory learning and memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 46 The results of Milner's psychological evaluation of Scoville's patients formed the basis of Scoville and Milner's "Loss of Recent Memory after Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions," the benchmark Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry paper. 3
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 46 This paper has become a classic  in neuroscience literature because it informs neurosurgeons that destroying the medial temporal lobe structures on both sides of the brain would cause amnesia and should be avoided. The results also establish for the first time that a distinct region of the brain, the hippocampus and its neighbors, was necessary for long-term memory formation. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 46 The Scoville and Milner article formed the basis of decades of experimental studies of amnesic patients, and inspired animal models of amnesia that yielded a wealth of information on the biology of memory processes. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 46 Milner examined Henry for the first time in April 1955, 20 months after his operation. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 46 Henry's overall intelligence was above average, and his capacities for perceptual, abstract thinking, and reasoning were normal. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 47 Scoville and Milner concluded their celebrated paper by identifying the hippocampus and adjacent hippocampal gyros as a substrate for remembering new information. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 47 As Miller delved deeper into the study of memory loss, and Henry's in particular, Scoville moved on. He maintained an active neurosurgical practice and published more than 50 papers in medical journals, but did not continue to see Henry. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 47 Scoville warned other neurosurgeons against damaging the hippocampal area on both sides of the brain. In a 1974 lecture, he called Henry's operation "a tragic mistakes." 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 48 In 1961, Suzanne Corkin joined Milner's laboratory at the Neuro as a McGill University graduate student. This institution was renowned for the treatment of epilepsy patients, using the surgical procedures Penfield had developed. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 48 Milner was especially skilled at designing tests that could be given before and after an operation to tease apart a patient's performance on different cognitive tests – sensory perception, reasoning, memory, and problem solving – to discover any changes in brain function caused by the surgery. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 48 Corkin and Milner communicated closely with surgeons and knew after each procedure what part of the patient's brain had been removed and the size of the excision. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 48 Corkin had the opportunity to witness operations on patients' brains from behind a glass window in the viewing gallery in the main operating amphitheater. She could look over the surgeon's shoulder at the patient's brain and watch the surgeon stimulate the brain and map out landmarks before removing any issue. To guard against damaging areas specialized for language and movement, the surgeon identified the region by electrically stimulating the outer layers of the brain while the patients were awake. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 49 Corkin's PhD thesis projects studied how operations to alleviate epilepsy affected the somatosensory system – the sense of touch. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 49 Corkin first met Henry in May 1962, when Milner arranged for him to visit the Neuro for testing. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 49 At the time of his visit to Montr้al, Henry was in his 30s, in it prime of his life, but completely dependent on his mother, Ms. Molaison. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 52 Short-term memory, as defined by memory researchers, does not refer to recalling what we did yesterday, this morning, or even 20 min. ago. That kind of  recollection is recent, long-term memory. 3
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 52 Short-term memory is the immediate present, the information on our "radar screens" at this very moment; it expires within about 30 seconds or less, depending on the task. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 52 Short-term memory capacity is limited, and it fades immediately if we do not rehearse it or convert it into a form that can be retained in long-term memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 52 The short-term memory store is not a warehouse in the brain; instead it is a series of processes that keep bits of information, such as a phone number, active for a brief period of time. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 52 Long-term memory is anything we remember after a few seconds have elapsed. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 52 Henry's role as a research participant began in 1953, just prior to his operation. Scoville order a complete psychological evaluation to establish a preoperative baseline against which to measure any changes resulting from the procedure. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 71 In 1974, psychologist Alan Baddeley posited that working memory is not a unitary system but consists of three subsystems: a central executive that calls the shots, and to slave systems that do the hard work – one devoted to visual information and one to language. 19
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 71 Baddeley's working memory model has generated an explosion of experiments, trying to identify the mechanisms operating within the each system. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 79 In August 1977 a CT scan of Henry's brain confirmed only that he was missing tissue in each temporal lobe, but researchers were unable to judge exactly which structures had been removed and to what extent. 8
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 79 By the mid-1970s, mounting evidence from animal and human tests had convinced scientists that the hippocampus was vital for converting short-term memory into long-term memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 79 In the early 1990s, researchers were finally able to thoroughly assess the damage that has been done to Henry's brain, thanks to the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which had been invented in 1970. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 83 The MIT clinical research Center (CRC), the base of all this testing, was established in 1964 as part of a larger movement to create federally funded centers for academic research on human diseases. The clinical research centers, funded by the National Institutes of Health, were instrumental in applying scientific techniques to studying disorders in a clinical setting. 4
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 91 In 1953, when Henry returned home from the hospital after his radical operation, it became clear to the parents that even mundane activities would be a challenge for him. 8
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 91 Henry's boss at Royal Typewriter in Hartford phoned Ms. Molaison and told her that Henry was too forgetful to do his job. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 91 Henry stayed home with his parents, under his mother's constant care. Singlehandedly, she looked after all of his needs for the next three decades. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 91 Henry helped his parents with household chores but forgot the location of items to use frequently. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 91 Henry would read the same magazines repeatedly, and would complete jigsaw puzzles without realizing he had already done them. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 91 Henry's spatial memory – declarative memory for spatial locations – was deficient. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 92 By the 1990s, scientists have uncovered a network of brain regions, including the hippocampus and areas in the cortex, which are engaged when remembering the topography of spaces 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 93 Some components of Henry's brain network for processing information about space were still present. They including specific areas in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes – the somatosensory cortex, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes – somatosensory cortex, parietoinsular vestibular  cortex, part of the posterior parietal cortex, inferotemporal cortex, and posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 94 Henry's successful acquisition of the cognitive map of the house provided astonishing evidence of spatial knowledge, acquired slowly over time. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 94 Through countless hours of practice, Henry slowly learned the geography of his house, without awareness and without consciously referring to a declarative memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 96 On rare occasions, Henry somehow, compensated for the devastating effects of his hippocampal damage by mobilizing preserved brain regions and networks. 2
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 96 A basic requirement for memory formation is intact perception. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 97 Researchers consistently documented Henry's disorder with a wide range of test stimuli – words, stories, faces, pictures, scenes, mazes, puzzles, and more. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 102 For at least four years, Henry was unable to articulate the fact that his father had died. 5
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 102 Corkin did not question Henry explicitly about the father because she knew it would upset him. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 103 Without a functioning hippocampus and amygdala, Henry did not form long-term emotional memories. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 103 Henry's intelligence was above average; his IQ was 120 in 1962. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 105 Henry continued to have occasional tantrums, sometimes showing frustration at his inability to remember. 2
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 106 All of Henry's medical attention at MIT was free and place no financial burden on the Molaison family. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 107 Henry was smoking a pack of cigarettes a day. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 107 Henry good feel and communicate emotions – both positive and negative – despite missing almost all of his amygdala, one of the key structures underlying emotion. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 107 Henry could judge the emotions in pictures of faces, indicating whether an expression was happy or sad. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 107 Henry was usually on an even keel, but on rare occasions he would become very angry. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 107 Henry was mild-mannered, friendly, and patient, and his behaviors in social situations was exemplary. At the CRC, he was always docile and friendly. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 108 In 1969, psychologist Paul Ekman proposed that people across all cultures experience six basic emotions:   sadness, happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 The cognitive operations of long-term memory are grounded in information theory, an idea introduced in 1948 by Claude Shannon, an engineer at New Jersey's Bell Telephone Laboratories. 8
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 Shannon introduced this idea in his mathematical theory of communication, integrating knowledge from applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and cryptography to describe the transmission of information as a statistical process, and coining the term bit to describe the most fundamental unit of information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 Conceptualizing learning and memory in terms of information processing was a key advance, allowing researchers to divine memory into three stages of development. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 The first stage is encoding information by turning sensory inputs from the world into representations in the brain. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 The second stage is storing those representations so that so they can be extracted later. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 The third stage is retrieving the stored memories when they are needed. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 116 Henry had no trouble encoding information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 The stimuli that Henry's brain received could be held briefly, but they could not be stored away and revise revisited later. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 Beginning with the publication of Scoville and Melrose paper in 1957, Henry's case helped launch decades of research that directed dissected the cognitive and neural processes within each of the three stages of memory formation. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 Miller's landmark discovery with Henry's long-term memory processes led to the important theoretical distinction between declarative or explicit memory and nondeclarative or implicit memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 Declarative memory, rooting in the medial temporal lobes, refers to the type of memory we involve in everyday conversation. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 Declarative memory includes the capacity you recollect consciously to kind of information: episodic knowledge – the recollection of specific experiences – and semantic knowledge – general knowledge, such as information we gather about people,, places, language, maps, and concepts, not only to a particular learning event. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 In many ways, declarative memory is the backbone of everyday life, enabling us to acquire the knowledge we need to pursue goals and dreams and to function as independent people. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 Henry lived for 55 years without acquiring any new declarative memories. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 The structures removed from Henry's brain were dedicated to declarative memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 117 Henry surgery left intact of the circuits that supported his nondeclarative memory, resulting in his ability to learn new motor skills and acquire conditioned responses. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 118 Research that stem from Henry's case shed light on the fundamental processes that underlie the encoding, storage, and retrieval of episodic knowledge. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 118 Over the latter part of the 20th century great progress has been made in characterizing the three stages of memory processing. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 118 In the 1990s, the development of brain imaging tools such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional MRI. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 118 After the discovery that conscious remembering depends on mechanisms in the hippocampus and its close neighbor, the parahippocampal gyrus, scientists began to tackle basic questions in the psychology and biology of episodic learning. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 118 The likelihood that we will remember a name, face, date, address, directions to a party, or anything else is related to the richness of the representation. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 124 Researchers link the use of highly emotional images to an increased volume in the cingulate gyrus, a part of the limbic system. 6
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 124 Encoding is the gateway to memory formation, with consolidation and storage following closely behind. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 124 Henry could encode information presented to him and register it briefly, but then his processing broke down, and he could not consolidate and store the information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 124 In 1995, when functional MRI was in its infancy, MRI images showed increased activity in Henry's frontal lobes as he performed a picture encoding task. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 125 In processing pictures of either indoors or outdoors scenes, two separate areas in the left frontal lobe and an area in the right frontal lobe, are normally active during the encoding. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 125 The consolidation process by which memories become fixed is a lasting change that happens in individual neurons and their molecular components. Connections between adjacent neurons become stronger or weaker in response to the learning experiences. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 125 Having no hippocampi, Henry was unable to initiate and complete the active processes required for consolidation. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 125 Early in the 20th century, researchers discovered that declarative learning, consciously retrieving facts and episodes, does not immediately lead to the enduring memory. Instead, consolidation depends on changes in the brain that occur gradually over time. During this time, the newly learned material is susceptible to interference. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 126 Experiments have shown that consolidation is an active process that takes time. The associations are easily broken right after encoding, but become stronger from minute to minute. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 127 In Henry's brain, the critical cellular events in the hippocampus and cortex that occur for minutes or hours after encoding never activated, and thus new declarative information could not be secured. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 127 Neuroscientists have learned that the neural infrastructure of memories can be disrupted by injury to brain physiology in the form of drugs, alcohol, or head injury. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 127 Vulnerability to memory formation is prevalent in football. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 127 The crucial lesson Henry's injury taught us is that the hippocampus is necessary for building associations. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 Association, a basic concept in both animal and human learning, is the essence of episodic memory; it enables us to characterize a unique event by integrating its context and time and space. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 Associations develop and strengthen over time when particular items occur together repeatedly. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 We experience association when we moved to a new neighborhood and gradually get to know the people who live in our community and to work in the coffee shops, armistice, and restaurants that we frequent. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 Eventually, by association we get to know people well, as we gather information about their personal lives. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 Over time, by association our brain build up an elaborate representation of our neighborhood, and with lots of individual facts and events become connected to one another. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 After we have lived in a neighborhood for a few years, we have built up by association a vivid, detailed picture of what the neighborhood is like. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 In recent decades, thanks to contributions from thousands of lands in many countries, scientists have come to understand the cognitive processes and neural representations that support the associations we form and our thoughts. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 Cortical neighbors of the hippocampus, the parahippocampal areas, flood the hippocampus with complex perceptions, ideas, and context, and the hippocampus associates this wealth of information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 The hippocampus links distinct objects with one another and with the time and place we encounter them – all the objects and the people we saw, sounds we heard, and aromas we smelled.. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 128 The hippocampus links events in time to record the flow of experiences that comprise a unique episode, i.e. the sequence of entering the coffee shop, getting in line, reading the menu, ordering a large cappuccino, waiting for the server to provide great, picking up our order, and rushing out the door to get to work. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 129 The hippocampus also links many events and episodes in terms of their common features to form a network of relationships – i.e. connecting this morning's coffee shop memory to memories of meals and other coffee shops and restaurants that we frequent, thus composing our general knowledge of eating out. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 129 Each morning, when we and encode the details of and experience in the coffee shop, this new learning reactivates many separate events from the past, resulting in an updated, rich associative representation that transcends the individual events. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 129 To establish this inclusive representation of eating out, we depend on cooperative interactions in our brain between our hippocampus and the regions in the midbrain, a two-centimeter-long structure that connects the cortex and striatum to areas lower in the brain. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 129 Cross episode integration, connecting separate experiences that have common characteristics, guys decision-making in everyday life. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 129 The intricate cognitive and neural infrastructure to make associations was not available to Henry. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 129 When Milner tested  Henry for the first time in 1955, she examined his ability to form word associations by reading aloud word pairs. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 130 Short-term associations melted away for Henry because his brain lacked the medial temporal lobe infrastructure required to consolidate and store them. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 130 In this seminal 1957 paper detailing Henry's operation and his psychological test results, Scoville and Milner launched the modern era of memory research. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 130 Research with Henry corroborated that the hippocampus was crucial for establishment of long-term memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 130 As a result of numerous and diverse memory tests with Henry, the hippocampus became the focus of thousands of memory researchers all over the world. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 130 Memory consolidation depends on dialogue among brain circuits, Coppola said to the changes within networks of cells, specifically those in the hippocampus. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 130 Memory consolidation requires intense conversations between the hippocampus and areas in the temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices where bits and pieces of memory are stored. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 157 Motor skill learning is readily amenable to a laboratory study, so Henry became a rich resource. 27
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 157 Milner's 1955 mirror-drawing study and Corkin's own 1964 study inspired her to examine whether Henry could learn other motor skills tasks. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 157 In 1966, when Henry was 40 years old, his parents gave their approval for him to check into the Clinical Research Center (CRC) for two weeks of testing – the first of Henry's 50 visits to the CRC over the next 35 years. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 158 Henry intended to do everything slowly, likely due to phenobarbital prescribed for insomnia as well as epilepsy. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 158 Henry could learn new motor skills and retain that knowledge over long periods of time. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 160 Declarative knowledge requires medial temporal lobe structures for its expression, whereas nondeclarative, procedural knowledge is independent of that network. 2
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 160 Learning new skills, new procedures, occurs without conscious awareness. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 160 Musicians find that their performance falls apart if they tried to think about a difficult piece of music note by note; instead, they execute a complex motor sequence without thinking about it. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 160 A concert pianist is driven by his brain's extensive procedural knowledge acquired over the years that rigorously practicing that piece; he is integrating the individual keypresses into a fluent whole, and performs without conscious reference to individual finger movements. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 160 Henry's ability to learn new motor skills demonstrated convincingly that the areas that had been excised in his operation – the hippocampus and surrounding structures – were not necessary for learning new motor skills. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Since the beginning of the 20th century, scientists have known that the striatum and the cerebellum play important roles in motor control. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 The striatum include the caudate nucleus and the putamen. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 The striatum receives messages from specific cortical areas and send signals back to the same areas by way of the thalamus, which integrates sensory and motor activities. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 The striatum is well-informed about what is going on in the body and in the world, and is well qualified to learn difficult motor skills. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 The cerebellum is a large, complex structure at the back of the brain under the visual cortex. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Henry cerebellum was greatly reduced in size. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 The cerebellum is directly connected to the striatum and to several areas and the cortex by means of closed circuits. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Because the cerebellum receives information from many parts of the brain and spinal cord, it stands at the front line of motor control. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Abnormalities in the striatum are responsible for more than 20 disorders, including two progressive brain diseases, Parkinson's disease and Huntington disease. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Within the striatum, the putamen is most affected by Parkinson's disease and the caudate nucleus in Huntington disease. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Parkinson's disease is a common affliction with an unknown cause that typically strikes people in their 50s, men more than women. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Someone afflicted with Parkinson's disease often has an expressionless face, slow movement, shaking of the hands, stooped posture, and shuffling steps. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 Parkinson's disease begins with a loss of neurons in the substantia nigra, a bundle of gray matter under the cerebral cortex that normally send out fibers, which carry the neurotransmitter dopamine up to the striatum. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 161 When cells in the substantia nigra die, as they do in Parkinson's disease, the supply of dopamine transmitted to the putamen is diminished, causing motor abnormalities. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 We need a functioning hippocampus to reexperience unique moments in our past. 69
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 The network of brain areas that supports the retrieval of remote autobiographical information is distinct from the network that sustains the recovery of remote semantic information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 Remote autobiographical information is impaired in amnesia, while remote semantic information is not. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 Medial temporal lobe structures are engaged in the initial encoding, storage, and retrieval of both kinds of memories – autobiographical information and semantic information. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 During the process of consolidation, semantic memory become permanently established in the cortex, while episodic, autobiographical memory traces continue to depend on medial temporal lobe structures and definitely. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 In the late 1970s we did not know how important sleep is for memory consolidation, and we did not understand its central role in neural plasticity. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 In the late 1970s, we knew little about the neural basis of dreams, and studies of the cognitive neuroscience of training did not exist. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 230 What scientists knew in late 1970s was that there is a relation between movements in different stages of sleep, and between different stages of sleep and dreaming. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 231 Dreams are the product of our imagination, akin to mental imagery when we are awake. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 231 Dream.typically disjointed, weird, and pleading – not narratives that makes sense. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 233 The amygdala is very active during REM sleep. 2
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 233 Henry sometimes had nocturnal seizures whose aftermath let him out of sorts the next day. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 233 The nature and quality of Henry's dream content remain a puzzle. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 234 If Henry could not remember anything since his late 20s, how did the injustice seeing himself as a middle-aged and eventually an older gentleman? 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 234 When Henry looked in the mirror, he never expressed shock or lack of recognition; he was comfortable with the person he saw looking back at him. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 234 Scientists know that the brain contained a region in the fusiform gyrus – a section of the temporal lobe that was preserved in Henry – specialized for processing fases. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 234 Scientists also know that areas in the prefrontal cortex become active when people view their own face. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 234 Henry somehow reconcile memories of himself prior to the operation with his car appearance. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 During the decades following Henry's operation, the universe change in countless ways, but he was never shot by these transformations. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Henry unconsciously became familiar with new information in his environment as a result of repeated exposures day by day, which gave rise to slow learning over time. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 During each encounter with his own face, weighted people who took care of him, and with his environment, Henry's brain automatically registered that features an integrated them into stored internal representations of objects and people. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Being unable to establish new memories, Henry could not construct an autobiography as his life unfolded. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 For many of us, our personal history is the most critical part of who we are, and we spent considerable time thinking about our past experiences and imagining how our stories will play out in the future. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Our sense of self that includes the story of our past and where we think we are going – our "to-do list." 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Henry's operation, in addition to depriving him of the declarative memory, prevented him from mentally traveling forward in time, in the short term or in the long-term. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Henry lacked the pieces to construct agendas and could not imagine future experiences. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Cognitive neuroscientists have called attention to the link between simulating future events and episodic retrieval. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 Cognitive neuroscientists have identified a common brain circuit that is engaged in remembering the past and picturing the future. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 235 The process of imagining future events depends on the medial temporal lobe strutures, the prefrontal cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex – the same areas critical for declarative memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 236 When we fantasize about our next vacation, we tap into long-term memory for details of past vacations and other knowledge. 1
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 236 Remembering past events and recombining them to create future scenarios require the retrieval of information from long-term memory. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 236 Constructing the future, like resurrecting the past, requires establishing functional connections between the hippocampus and areas in the frontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 236 Henry had no mental database to consult when asked what he would do the next day, week, or in the years to come. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense 236 Henry could not imagine the future any more than he could remember the past. 0
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense
Corkin; Permanent Present Tense