Gerald Edelman; Universe of Consciousness
Book Page   Topic    
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 22 Working memory, the ability to "keep in mind" and manipulate conscious contents, such as phone numbers, sentences, and positions in space, for a few seconds is clearly closely related to consciousness.
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 38 Human brain -~100 billion neurons 16
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 38 Cerebral cortex -~30 billion neurons and 1 million billion (1015) synapses 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 38 Number of different types of neurons in the brain -~50. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 38 Lengths and branching patterns of dendrites and axons from a given type of neuron fall with certain ranges of variation, but even with a given type, no two cells are alike. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 38 Gross anatomy of the brain - (diagram) Cerebral Cortex, Thalamus, Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum, Brain Stem 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 39 Glia - nonneuronal cells interspersed among the neurons that support and nourish nerve cells without being directly involved in signaling. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 40 Brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 40 Excitatory and Inhibitory neurons 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 40 Synapses 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 40 Inside of a neuron is negatively charged 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 40 Action Potential spreads down the axon 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 40 Release of neurotransmitters from vesicles in the presynaptic neuron 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 41 Diagram of a Synapse 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 42 At the brainís higher levels of anatomical order, it is possible to distinguish important principles of organization. Three major topological arrangements in the brain appear to be essential to understanding the brainís global functioning. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 43 Three main topological arrangements of neuroanatomy in the brain --(diagram) 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 43 Thalamocortical system--dense meshwork of reentrant connectivity between thalamus and cortex and between cortical regions. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 43 Noradrenergic locus coeruleus-fan-like 'hairnet' of fibers all over the brain, release neuromodulator noradrenaline. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 45 A set of parallel, unidirectional chains link the cortex to a set of its subcortical appendages, each with a special structure -- the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the hippocampus. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 45 Traditionally, the cerebellum is considered to be concerned with the coordination and synchrony of motion. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 45 Basal ganglia consists of a set of large nuclei deep in the brain that receive connections from much of the cortex, go through a series of successive synaptic steps, and then project to the thalamus and from there back to the cortex. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 45 Basal ganglia are involved in the planning and execution of complex motor and cognitive acts and are dysfunctional in Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 45 Hippocampus-major role in consolidating short-term memory into long-term memory in the cerebral cortex 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 48 Reentry -- ongoing, recursive interchange of parallel signals between reciprocally connected areas of the brain, an interchange that continually coordinates the activities of neural maps in space and time.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 3
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 49 There is no other object in the universe so completely distinguished by reentrant circuitry as the human brain. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 62 Conscious experience is associated with the activity of populations of neurons that are widely distributed in the thalamocortical system. The distributed groups of neurons must engage in strong and rapid reentrant interactions.†† [recursion][Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 13
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 63 Corpus callosum-approximately 200 million nerve fibers reciprocally linking the two cerebral hemispheres 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 67 Perception without awareness - The Hidden Persuaders, 'subliminal perception', Message "DRINK COKE" flashed briefly during a movie. 4
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 83 Theory of neuronal group selection (TNGS) or Neural Darwinism. (1) Developmental selection, (2) Experimental selection, (3) Reentrant mapping. 16
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 83 During embryonic development, neurons extend branching axons via chemosensory guidance, forming extensive synapse patterns in each person. Later activity in the neural network "prunes" the unused synapses. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 83 Neurons strengthen or weaken their synaptic connections according their individual patterns of activity: Neurons that "fire together, wire together." 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 84 Neuronal group selection -(1) Developmental selection, (2) Experimental selection, (3) Reentrant mapping -(illustration) 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 85 Correlation of events across various maps of the brain occurs via the dynamic process of reentry. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 85 Reentry is the mechanism by which the spatiotemporal coordination of diverse functional modules is achieved. Reentry synchronizes the activity of neuronal groups in different areas of the brain, binding them to function as a coherent unit.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 86 Degeneracy -- many different ways by which aparticular output occurs. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 87 Countless examples of degeneracy in the brain. The complex meshwork of connections in the thalamocortical system assures that a large number of different neuronal groups can similarly affect the output. A consequence of degeneracy is that certain localized neurological lesions may often appear to have little effect. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 87 Ability ofnatural selection to give rise to a number of nonidentical structures yielding similar functions increases both the robustness of biological networks and their adaptability to unforeseen environments. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 88 Many reflexes with which newborn babies are endowed.[innate FAPs] 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 88 In higher vertebrates, a series of diffusely projecting neural value systems have evolved that are capable of continually signaling to neurons and synapses all over the brain. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 89 Locus coeruleus consists of only a few thousand neurons in the brainstem. These neurons give rise to a vast meshwork of axons that blanket the cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and spinal cord. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 89 Value system -- (diagram) 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 89 Neurons belonging to the value system often produce a sudden burst of firing whenever something important or salient occurs to the animal. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 89 Neurons in the locus coeruleus fire whenever an animal enters a novel environment or something unexpected happens. When they fire they release the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 89 Value systems are perfectly poised to signal the occurrence of important events to the entire brain. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 89 Diagram of a value system -- Noradrenergic system originating in the locus coeruleus projects diffusely to the entire brain and releases the neuromodulator noradrenaline. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 93 Nonrepresentational memory 4
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 93 Memory is a central component of the brain mechanisms that lead to consciousness. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 95 Cerebral cortex alone is not sufficient to perform the functions of perceptual categorization and control of movement. Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection (TNGS) defines a global mapping. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 95 Global mapping relates an animal's movement and changing sensory input to the action of the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum as they connect to the cerebral cortex. Thus a global mapping links the thalamocortical system with the subcortical appendages.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 95 Global mapping is a dynamic structure containing multiple reentrant local maps that interact with nonmapped regions, such as those of the brain stem, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and parts of the cerebellum.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 95 Perception generally depends on and leads to action.††† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 96 Continual motor activity is an essential part of perceptual categorization.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 96 Global mapping (diagram) 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Memory is dynamically generated from the activity of certain selected subsets of circuits. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Memory cannot be identified uniquely with any single specific set of synaptic changes. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Memory is a replay of neural response patterns adequate to the performance, not some sequence or specific detail. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Synaptic change is fundamental and essential for memory but not identical to it. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Degeneracy in neural circuits allows for changes in particular memories as new experiences and changes in context occur. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Dynamic changes linking one set of circuits to another within the enormously varied neuroanatomical repertoires of the brain allow it to create a memory. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Structurally different circuits within the degenerate repertoires are able to produce a similar output, leading to repetition or variation. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Associative properties of memory - an act can trigger another act , a word can trigger other words, or an image can provoke a narrative. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 98 Associative properties arise materially from the fact that each different member of the degenerate set of circuits used at different times has different alternative network connections. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Distinction between Primary consciousness and Higher-order consciousness 4
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Primary consciousness is seen in animals with certain brain structures similar to ours. These animals appear to be able to construct a mental scene but have limited semantic or symbolic capabilities and no true language. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Primary consciousness emerged in evolution when, through the appearance of new circuits mediating reentry, posterior areas of the brain that are involved in perceptual categorization were dynamically linked to anterior areas that are responsible for a value-based memory. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Higher-order consciousness is built on the foundations provided by primary consciousness and is accompanied by a sense of self and the abilityin the waking state explicitly to construct past and future scenes. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Higher-order consciousness requires a semantic capability, and in its most developed form, a linguistic capability. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Perceptual categorization -- the ability to carve up the world of signals into categories adaptive for a given animal species. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 102 Concepts arise from the mapping by the brain itself of the activity of the brain's own areas and regions. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 103 Primary consciousness - the ability to generate a mental scene in which a large amount of diverse information is integrated for the function of directing present or immediate behavior -- occurs in animals with brain structures similar to ours. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 103 Remembered present -- a scene that adaptively links immediate or imagined contingences to that animal's previous history of value-driven behavior. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 104 Structures and mechanisms must be described to account for the consciousness that we ascribe both to dogs and to ourselves. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 104 Along with control of movement, perceptual categorizationis the most fundamental process of the vertebrate nervous system. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 104 Reentrant signaling occurs among various areas of the brain that are present within global mappings. It occurs simultaneously in a number of modalities (including sight, hearing, joint sense, or kinesthesia) and in a variety of submodalities (within the visual modality, for example, color, orientation, and motion).†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 104 Concept -- the ability to combine different perceptual categorizations related to a scene or an object and to construct a "universal" reflecting the abstraction of some common feature across a variety of such percepts. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 104 Concepts arise as a result of the mapping by the brain itself of the activity of the brain's different areas and regions. Various common features of responses to different signals can be abstracted. Forward motion is a concept. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Memory capacity arises from combinations of synaptic alterations in reentrant circuits. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Value constraints to develop categorical responses that are adaptive. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Diffuse ascending value systems of the brain are known to be richly connected to the concept-forming regions of the brain, notably the frontal and temporal cortex. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Limbic system located on the internal side of the brain that forms a circle around the brainstem. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Value, emotional responses, and salience provide strong constraints on the establishment of a conceptual, category-based memory. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Value-category memory -- synaptic alterations that combine to develop various individual memories are essential to a model of primary consciousness. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 105 Reentry is a process of ongoing and parallel and recursive signaling between separate brain maps along massively parallel anatomical connections, most of which are reciprocal.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 106 Reentry is the most important integrative mechanism in higher brains. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 106 Recursive signaling metaphor -- string quartet in which the players make quick glances and gesticulate signals among themselves to coordinate their individual performances. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 106 Organization of the cerebral cortex is such that even within a single modality, vision for example, there is a multitude of specialized or functionally segregated maps devoted to different submodalities (color, movement, form, etc.). 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 106 Binding assures the integration of the neuronal responses to a particular object contour with its color, position, and direction of movement. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Binding can occur via reentry across brain maps, thereby establishing short-term temporal correlations and synchrony among widely spaced neuronal groups. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Selection of circuits that are temporally correlated under constraints of value leads to coherent output. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 The binding principle made possible by reentry is repeated across many levels of brain organization, thereby leading to consciousness.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Primary consciousness - (1) Reentry, (2) Perceptual categorization, (2) Concept formation, (4) Value-category memory 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Reciprocal connections between cortex and thalamus. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Thalamocortical circuits mediating these reentrant interactions originate in the major subdivisions of the thalamus: specific thalamic nuclei, reticular nucleus, intralaminar nuclei. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Specific nuclei of the thalamus are reentrantly connected with the cerebral cortex. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Reticular nucleus of the thalamus has inhibitory connections with the specific nuclei and can select or gate various combinations of their activity. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 107 Intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus send diffuse projections to most areas of the cerebral cortex and help to synchronize its overall level of activity. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 108 Mechanisms of Primary Consciousness -(diagram) 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 109 Value systems - memories of reward and punishment acquired during past behavior. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 109 Short term memory that is fundamental to primary consciousness reflects previous categorical and conceptual experiences. The interaction of the memory system with current perception occurs over periods of fractions of a second.[Remembered present] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 109 Remembered present - the ability to construct a conscious scene within a fraction of a second. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 109 The one central structural principle that underlies consciousness is the emergence during evolution of anatomically based reentrant systems. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 110 Functional integration imposed by reentry between perceptual and memorial systems. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 111 Dynamic Core hypothesis 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 113 (large-scale computer simulations) - Reentry is the key neural mechanism by which integration can be achieved within the thalamocortical system. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 114 Binding the activity of functionally segregated brain areas. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 120 Functional cluster - subset of elements within a neural system that strongly interact among themselves but interact much less strongly with the rest of the system. 6
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 121 Entropy reflects the number of possible patterns of activity a system can take. Interactions within the system reduce the entropy. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 121 The term integration is defined to measure the loss of entropy due to interactions among the elements. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 122 The term mutual information is defined to measure the amount of statistical dependence between a subset of elements and the rest of the system. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 122 Functional cluster index is defined to measure the relative strength of interactions within a subset of elements compared to interactions between the subset and the rest of the system. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 122 Diagram of Functional Clustering. - (illustration) 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 124 Synchronous activity among distant brain areas is often an indication of rapid functional clustering. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 124 Activity of large populations of neurons can be highly synchronized over a short period. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 124 Integration and rapid functional clustering occur in the thalamocortical system, and reentry is the major mechanism for achieving integration. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 125 Information is measured as the reduction of uncertainty among a number of alternatives. Neural processes underlying consciousness must be highly differentiated to be informative. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 126 Differentiation - billions of different conscious states can be experienced, each of which may lead to different behavioral outputs. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 130 Neural complexity 4
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 134 Complexity can be used as a statistical measure of the extent to which a neural process is differentiated. 4
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 134 When an animal awakens, the value systems resume firing, cells in both the thalamus and cortex undergo a transition from burst-pause pattern, typical of slow-wave sleep, to the tonic pattern, typical of waking. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 135 Slow-wave sleep and epileptic seizures, two brain states characterized by highly integrated firing in most of the brain, are not associated with conscious experience because their repertoire of available neural states is diminished and their complexity is low. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 136 Thalamocortical system -- even of a fetus in utero -- is spontaneously active whether or not it receives inputs form outside. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 137 Most neurons in the thalamocortical system receive signals from other neurons, rather than directly from sensory inputs. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 139 Only a subset of the neuronal groups in the brain contributes directly to conscious experience at any given time. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 139 Activity of a group of neurons can contribute directly to conscious experience if it is part of a functional cluster, characterized by strong mutual interactions among a set of neuronal groups over a period of hundreds of milliseconds. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 139 To sustain conscious experience, it is essential that the functional cluster be highly differentiated, as indicated by high values of complexity. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 139 Dynamic core -- ever-changing composition yet ongoing integration, is generated largely, although not exclusively, within the thalamocortical system. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 140 Activity of distributed populations of neurons must be integrated through strong, rapid neural interactions. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 140 Neural processes underlying conscious experience must be sufficiently differentiated, as contrasted with the loss of consciousness when neural activity is globally homogeneous or hypersynchronous, as is the case during slow-wave sleep and generalized epilepsy. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 140 Every conscious task seems to require the activation or deactivation of many regions of the brain, typically including portions of the thalamocortical system. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 140 How much of the brain does a thought require? 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 142 Lesions of certain visual cortical areas eliminate all visual aspects of perception, imagery and dreaming. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 143 Only a subset -- although not a small subset -- of the neurons in the human brain contributes directly to consciousness experience. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 143 Consciousness is neither a thing nor a simple property. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 144 Dynamic Core hypothesis 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 144 A group of neurons can contribute directly to conscious experience only if it is part of a distributed functional cluster that, through reentrant interactions in the thalamocortical system, achieves high integration in hundreds of milliseconds. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 144 To sustain conscious experience, it is essential that the functional cluster be highly differentiated, as indicated by high values of complexity. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 169 Neurons in the sensory areas of the brain typically fire at high rates (0-100 Hz), whereas neurons in, say, the prefrontal cortex at a lesser rate (0-10 Hz). 25
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 173 In categorizing incoming stimuli, the brain goes well beyond the information given. Within the dynamic core, conscious perception and memory should be considered two aspects of the same process. 4
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 176 Unconscious aspects of mental activity, such as motor and cognitive routines, unconscious memories, intentions, and expectations, play a fundamental role in shaping and directing our conscious experience. 3
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 176 Unconscious routines, which are both motor and cognitive, involve long, parallel neural loops running through cortical appendages, such as the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 176 Unconscious processes can affect the dynamic core and thereby influence conscious experience. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 177 Dynamic core -- an integrated process that is generated largely in the thalamocortical system. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 177 Conscious experience is constantly influencing and being influenced by many unconscious processes. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 177 Conscious and unconscious processes are regularly in touch and their separation is often far from clear-cut. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 177 Musical performance -- a player's fingers operate without conscious control until the player gives some conscious directive on noting a change in rhythm or some other transition. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 178 Global mappings -- a large number of processes go on in structures such as basal ganglia, cerebellum, subcortical motor nuclei, and portions of the motor cortex. Result is the precise timing of contraction of muscles, coordination of different muscles and joints.†† [Stereotyped motor programs, hierarchies of FAPs] 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 179 Structures and connections mediating conscious and unconscious processes -- (diagram) 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 179 Thalamocortical system gives rise to the dynamic core, represented by a fine meshwork of cortical and thalamic areas and reentrant connections -- (diagram) 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 179 Connections to the brain stem and spinal cord mediate motor outputs. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 180 Neurons in layer V of the cerebral cortex are in a good position to constitute ports out from the core. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 182 Unconscious neural processes occurring in the sensory and motor periphery can influence the dynamic core. 2
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 182 Ongoing unconscious assistance to our conscious life occurs whenever we speak aloud or only to ourselves, write or type, play a musical instrument, perform athletic routines, drive an auto or simply set a table. It occurs when we perform a mental calculation or merely follow a train of thought without doing or saying anything.†† [Stereotyped motor programs, hierarchies of FAPs] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 183 Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological bases for automatic routines and subroutines that interface with the core. A series of polysynaptic loops leave the thalamocortical system, run through the cortical appendages, such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum, and subsequently make their way back to the thalamocortical system.†† [Stereotyped motor programs, hierarchies of FAPs] 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 184 Basal ganglia are a set of huge nuclei in the depths of the forebrain that contain a vast number of neurons and that have evolved in parallel with the thalamocortical system. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 185 Activity in the thalamocortical system leads to the formation of a large functional cluster of high complexity -- the dynamic core. 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 185 Basal ganglia parallel loops are noninteracting and therefore do not lead to the emergence of a single functional cluster. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 185 The long, one-way, parallel loops of the basal ganglia have the architecture to implement a variety of independent unconscious neural routines. They are triggered by the dynamic core at specific "ports out," do their job rapidly and efficiently, and then return the results to the core at specific "ports in." 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 185 Parallel loops through the basal ganglia (and through the cerebellum) may be involved in setting up and executing neural routines.†† [Stereotyped motor programs, hierarchies of FAPs] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 185 Basal ganglia participate in the development and expression of sequential motor acts; neurons in the basal ganglia fire selectively in relation to specific learned motor sequences.†† [Stereotyped motor programs, hierarchies of FAPs] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 185 The type of connectivity typical of basal ganglia and similar loops (functionally insulated and connected to the dynamic core only at ports out and ports in) may be the reason such routines are unconscious. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 186 In addition to automatic motor routines, there are a large number of cognitive routines having to do with speaking, thinking, planning, etc. that may be unconscious.†† [Stereotyped cognitive routines, hierarchies of"cognitive FAPs"] 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 186 A trip in a single loop through the basal ganglia may take up to 100-150 msec. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 187 The enormous associative capabilities of the dynamic core are ideal to link or hierarchically organize a series of preexisting unconscious routines into a particular sequence. Pianist deliberately links separate arpeggio passages.†† [Stereotyped cognitive routines, hierarchies of"cognitive FAPs"] 1
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 187 Global mappings are dynamic structures made up of multiple reentrant cortical maps and various cortical appendages that are linked to one or more of the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 187 Global mappings are activated when the dynamic core links, through its ports, a series of unconscious routines implemented by cortical appendages. 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 187 Cognitive life is typically constituted by an ongoing sequence of dynamic core states that trigger certain unconscious routines, which, in turn, trigger certain other dynamic core states [gestalts] and so on in a series of cycles.†† [reentry and recursion][Fuster'sperception-action cycle][Bayesian inference] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 187 Before behavior or thought become automatized and unconscious, there is a phase of conscious control in which behavioral or cognitive fragments are first painstakingly performed one by one and then linked until a single "chunk" of automated behavior can be flawlessly and effortlessly executed.†† [Stereotyped cognitive routines, hierarchies of"cognitive FAPs"] 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 190 Active thalamocortical islands or splinters broken away from the dominant dynamic core. 3
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 218 "The remembered present" connects present reality to the past value-ridden history of each individual, conscious animal. 28
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness 218 Efficacy of consciousness 0
Edelman; Universe of Consciousness