Eichenbaum; Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory
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Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory v Memory is fundamentally based on alterations in the connectivity of neurons.
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory v Brain's multiple memory systems are mediated by different brain structures and systems.
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory v Memory consolidation is a process by which memories are transformed from labial trace into a permanent store.
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory vi Two distinct stages of memory consolidation: (1) one stage involves molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie fixation of changes in the connection strengths introduced in forming the original mental image, (2) the other stage involves a reorganization and restructuring of the circuits that store and retrieve the long-term memory.
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 2 Memory is encoded within the dynamics i.e. the changeability or plasticity, of connections between nerve cells.
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 2 Memories are instantiated by alteration of the strengths of communication between cells via their synaptic connections. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 4 Cerebral cortex is composed of many anatomically circumscribe "modules." 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 4 Multiple memory systems in the brain, all of which involve the cerebral cortex, but they diverge in pathways leading from the cortex to subcortical structures, which accomplish different kinds of memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 5 First kind of memory consolidation called "fixation" involves a cascade of molecular and cellular events during which the changes in connections between cells become permanent in several minutes to hours after he memory is formed. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 5 Second kind of memory consolidation called "reorganization" involves a prolonged period during which distinct brain structures interact with one another, and the outcome is that newly acquired information is integrated into one's previously existing body of knowledge. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 9 Decapitated chickens -- coordinated flying movements in birds, even following decapitation, control of complex coordination can happen at a level below the brain, at the level of the spinal cord. 4
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 12 Conditioned reflex, Pavlov's dog. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 22 Memories require a certain amount of time to be organized and fixed. 10
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 25 Four main themes in studies on the neurobiology of memory: connection, cognition, compartmentalization, and consolidation. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 28 Bernard Katz in the 1950s showed that neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic ending of an axon in small packets of molecules called synaptic vesicles. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 28 Protein synthesis is required for permanent modifications of cells for lasting memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 28 Gene expression leading to proteins is a critical part of the consolidation process. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 29 Neurons encode memories by modifications in the strengths of the functional connections. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 29 Neuronal plasticity mediates habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 30 Synapse is a complicated structure composed of two main parts: presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 30 Neurotransmitters must diffuse across the synaptic cleft to reach specialized receptors in the postsynaptic element. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 31 Many different kinds of receptors, including distinct type of receptors for the same neurotransmitter, providing for a variety of effects of transmission on the target cells activities. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 31 A prototypical principle neuron is the pyramidal cell of the cortex and hippocampus.These neurons have a long branching dendrite that extends upward from the cell body and receives inputs from other regions as well as multiple dendrites that branch laterally from the cell to receives inputs from local neurons. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 31 Interneurons receives inputs and send their outputs within a local brain region. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 31 Motor neurons of the spinal cord have many branching dendrites that extend in all directions, and a single long axon that extends very long distances to innervate skeletal muscles. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 31 Sensory cells have specialized endings on their dendrites to receive information from specific sensory organs. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 39 Initiation of a neuron's action potential typically requires summation of many synaptic inputs.The combination of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials have considerable variation in the likelihood of triggering an action potential. 8
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 40 Temporal and spatial summation of spikes on dendrites. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 40 Degree to which individual synapses influence action potential depends on where on the dendrite the synapses are located.Synapses close to or on the cell body are most effective, because they will suffer less from the effects of detrimental conduction. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 41 Three simple forms of learning -- (1) habituation, (2) sensitization, (3) classical conditioning. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 41 Habituation 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 41 All of us use habituation every day to help us learn not to respond to irrelevant stimuli. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 41 Habituation is a very simple form of learning, but it has the lasting property that indicates it is indeed a form of long-termmemory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 43 Sensitization 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 43 Sensitization is the opposite of a habituation -- it involves an increase in reflex magnitude as a result of prior stimulation. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 43 As the result of sensitization, when we encounter a fearful stimulus, such as a loud noise, we've become for sometime more likely to startle, or startle more vigorously. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 46 Classical conditioning 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 46 Classical conditioning involves the acquisition of an association between the first, or conditioned stimulus, and the second, unconditioned stimulus. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 46 In Pavlov's dogs, the conditioned stimulus was a tone that did not initially elicit salivation.The tone was sounded in multiple trials prior to giving the dogs food.After several pairings, the tone came to elict the conditioned response of salvation. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 54 Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) 8
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 65 LTP beyond the hippocampus 11
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 87 Amnesiac patient HM. In 1933, when H. M. was seven years old, he was knocked down by a bicycle, hit his head, and was unconscious for five minutes.Three years after that accident he began to have minor epileptic seizures, followed by his first major seizure while riding in his parents car on his 16th birthday. Seizures became more frequent, on average 10 minor attacks each day and a major one each week, and he eventually could not perform his job. 22
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 92 Spared learning abilities in amnesia. 5
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 93 Priming 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 95 Skill learning 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 96 Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 97 Sequence learning 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 99 Distinction between "explicit memory" and "implicit" memory. 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 100 Distinction between "episodic memory" and "semantic memory". 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 100 Semantic memory is the body of one's world knowledge, a vast organization of memories not bound to any specific experience. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 102 H.M.ís amnesia is characterized by: (1) intact perceptual, motor, and cognitive functions, (2) intact immediate memory, (3) severe and global anterograde amnesia, (4) temporally graded retrograde amnesia, (5) spared remote memory. 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 102 Studies on many amnesiac patients have shown that the domain of spared learning in amnesia includes intact repetition priming, skill learning, Pavlovian conditioning, sequence learning, and more. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 103 Memory impaired in amnesia is "declarative" memory; learning abilities spared in amnesia is "procedural" memory. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 121 Distinction between "episodic memory" events tied to specific time and place, as contrasted with "semantic memory" for knowledge that is time- and event-independent. 18
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 121 Hippocampal memory as memory for unique episodes. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 125 Declarative memory is a combination of "event" or episodic memory and "fact" or semantic memory. 4
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 131 Hippocampus plays an important role in spatial learning by supporting the interleaving of multiple overlapping experiences and using the resulting organized spatial representation. 6
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 141 Hippocampus is always active in encoding new information for declarative memory. 10
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 141 Functional brain imaging generally supports the distinction between declarative and procedural memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 141 Verbal memory performance is selectively compromised at the left medial temporal lobe damage. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 141 Nonverbal memory performance is selectively compromised after right temporal lobe damage. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 142 Laterality for nonmemory processing of (verbal versus nonverbal) materials follows the well-known (left versus right) hemisphere distinctions. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 151 Place cells -- existence of location-specific neural activity in hippocampal neurons.Pyramidal neurons of the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus fire at high rates when an animal is a particular location in the environment. 9
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 156 Hippocampal neurons encode nonspatial stimuli and events. 5
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 160 Hippocampal network mediates a "memory space". 4
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 160 Location-specific activity of hippocampal neurons -- place cells are parts of a neural representation that is both less than, and more than, a map of space. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 169 Laterality of hemispheric differences in verbal versus nonverbal information processing throughout the cortex. 9
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 169 Medial temporal area is activated when a large amount of novel information is being processed. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 169 Remembered locations are important components of information coded by hippocampal neurons. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 169 Some hippocampal neurons fire only when an animal is in a particular place and is engaged in a particular behavior. These cells encode combinations of places and behaviors that define specific events. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 169 Sequential activations of sets of "place cells" could be used to represent sequences of events in episodic memories. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 172 Donald Hebb, "cell assemblies," defuse circuits of connected neurons that developed to represent specific percepts and concepts. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 173 Hebb emphasized some kind of of reverberatory activity among a network of many cells. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 173 Hebb suggested that short-term memory could be maintained within the reverberatory activity of such circuits, but long-term memory would require the ability to reinstantiate the activity within cell assemblies through changes in the conductivity of the elements and the particular pathways among them excited during learning. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 173 Hebb's view of cell assemblies incorporated both the specificity of functions of connections in the cortex, and the distribution of global functions across cortical areas. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 173 Structures in the medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus mediate one type of memory function, declarative memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 173 Brain areas other than the hippocampus are sufficient to mediate nondeclarative memory functions. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 173 Entire brain system in which the hippocampus operates to support declarative memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 176 Cortical localization 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 177 Cortex can be divided into posterior areas that are involved in perceptual processing, and anterior areas that are involved in motor processing. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 177 In the posterior cortex, most of the areas are divided by sensory modality. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 177 Areas in both the anterior and posterior cortex involve processing hierarchies. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 177 In the anterior cortex, there is the primary motor area just in front of the central sulcus, where the muscles of the body are mapped out in a topographic organization, with adjacent areas of cortex representing muscle groups in adjacent areas of the body. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 177 Primary motor cortex is the origin of a progression of projections to higher-order processing areas that are involved in the sequencing and organization of response output and, more generally, in the planning, executing, and withholding of goal-directed behaviors.†† [Fuster'sperception-action cycle] 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 177 In the posterior cortex there are distinct primary areas for each sensory modality. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 178 For each sensory modality, primary areas are the origins of a hierarchy of specialized processing regions leading to more and more complex perceptual areas. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 178 Some of the streams of sensory processing are combined in multimodal cortical areas, which in turn project to supramodal processing areas in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 182 Adult cortex shows plastic changes in response to altered input activity. 4
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 184 Cortical reorganization occurs as a result of learning. 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 187 Inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest order cortical visual processing area. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 187 IT cortex, identification of objects by their visual qualities. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 187 IT cortex, site of long-term storage of memory about visual objects. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 188 Neurons in the inferotemporal cortex change their firing patterns in accordance with their recent past history. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 191 All cortical areas, both in development and in adulthood, demonstrate considerable plasticity in the form of alterations in the size in topographic organization of cortical areas corresponding to increases or decreases in the activity of inputs to these areas. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 192 Working memory. Memory is encoded in the capacity of cortical cells to sustain or reactivate their normal sensory responses in the absence of the original stimulus. Hebb's reverberating circuit notion. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 192 Capacity of cortical cells to regenerate item-specific firing patterns when cued by an associated event. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 192 Hebb's model of complex memories as "phase sequences" involving replays of linked stimulus representations. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 192 Memory should be conceived as intimately intertwined with information processing in the cortex. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 192 Mechanisms of the cerebral cortex involve a combination of information processing and memory to constitute neural networks that contain the structure of our knowledge about the world. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 192 Memory is represented by the acquired biases in evoked activity patterns and the ability to recreate those knowledge representations. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 195 Multiple memory systems in the brain. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 200 Three major memory systems in the brain. 5
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 200 Parallel memory systems in the brain --Declarative memory, Procedural memory, Emotional memory (diagram) 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 210 Hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala are three key structures for processing one of the many streams of cortical information outward to other brain systems. 10
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 213 Brain system for Declarative Memory. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 213 Hippocampus has many synapses from sensory inputs and motor outputs, and so its contribution must be considered in the context of how the hippocampus performs its functions within the larger system of brain structures of which it is a part. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 213 Hippocampus is only one of several structures that compose the full brain system that mediates declarative memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 214 Anatomical characterization of the hippocampal memory system. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 214 Declarative memory system comprises three major components: (1) cerebral cortex; (2) parahippocampal region, which serves as a convergence center for neocortical inputs and mediates two-way communication between cortical association areas and the hippocampus; and (3) the hippocampus itself 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 215 Only highly preprocessed sensory information reaches the medial temporal lobe structures. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 216 Parahippocampal region comprises three distinct and adjacent cortical zones: (1) entorhinal cortex, (2) perrirhinal cortex, (3) parahippocampal cortex. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 217 Hippocampal system is composed of several subfields that are distinguished according to types and layouts of cells, and anatomical connections on the cells. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 217 the hippocampus is connected to other brain areas by two main bidirectional routes. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 217 one of these routes is via a major axonal bundle called the fornex, which carries input and output connections with the hippocampus and several subcortical areas. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 217 this connection pathway supports multiple modulatory influences on the hippocampus, including attentional controls that tell the hippocampus when to become activated and rhythmic controls that pace the processing cycles. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 217 the other route of communication for the hippocampus is via the parahippocampal region. This route support specific informational inputs to the hippocampus from a variety of cortical areas as well as outputs from the hippocampus to the same cortical areas. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 218 Pathways within the hippocampus (diagram) 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 221 Parahippocampal region and intermediate-term memory. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 229 Hippocampus and parahippocampal region in relational memory. 8
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 237 Brain system for Procedural Memory. 8
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 238 Primary motor cortex, cortical area that is critically involved in directing the force and flow of muscle contractions. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 238 Premotor cortex, plays a central role in the preparation for movement and the coordination of movements. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 238 Primary motor cortex and the premotor cortex work in close concert with two major subcortical structures, the striatum and the cerebellum. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 238 Each of the striatatum and cerebellum subcortical structures forms anodal point in a major circuit loop than begins with downward projections from the cortex and ends in a route from the thalamus back to the cortex. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Striatum is the combination of the anatomically distinct caudate nucleus and putamen. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Striatum works with other components of the basal ganglia and is the focus of most of the recording and lesion studies on procedural memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Striatum receives its cortical inputs from the entire cerebral cortex, and these projections are capable of activity-dependent changes in responsiveness. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Cortical projections to the striatum are topographically organized into modules within the striatum that can sort and associate somatosensory and motor representations. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Striatum projects mainly to other components of the basal ganglia and to the thalamus, which projects back to both the premotor and motor cortex, and the prefrontal association cortex. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Pattern of anatomical connectivity suggests that striatum is not directly involvedin controlling the details of motor output. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 239 Connections to premotor and prefrontal cortex suggests that the cortical-striatal loop contributes to higher motor functions including the planning and execution of complex motor sequences. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 240 Connections between parts of the striatal and the brain structures involved in motivation and emotion suggests that the striatum may be involved more generally in planning and execution of goal-oriented behavior. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 240 Cerebellum is a distinctive structure, remarkable particularly for the regularity of its internal circuitry. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 240 Cerebellum has a thalamic output route to the cerebral cortex,limited to the motor and premotor cortex. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 240 Cerebellum receives somatosensory inputs directly from the spinal cord and has major bidirectional connections with the brainstem nuclei associated with spinal cord functions. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 240 Cerebellum is believed to directly contribute to the execution of movement details, and to the acquisition of conditioned reflexes and body adjustments to changing environmental inputs. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 240 Striatal habit subsystem. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 241 Striatum is essential for learning that involves the acquisition of a consistent approach response to a specific stimulus. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 241 Double dissociation of hippocampal and striatal memory functions. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 250 Striatum is a key element in the pathway for sequence learning and other aspects of habit learning involving the acquisition of stereotyped and unconscious behavioral repertoires. 9
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 261 Brain system for Emotional Memory 11
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 262 Cingulate cortex, a major cortical division of the limbic lobe, connects to the hippocampal region. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 262 Hippocampus connects to an area of the hypothalamus called the mammilary bodies. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 262 Mammilary bodies connect to the anterior nuclei of the thalamus. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 262 Anterior nuclei of the thalamus project to the cingulate cortex, the beginning of the limbic system. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 262 Sensory inputs from the posterior parts of the thalamus arrive into the Papez circuit via either of two routes:Either by inputs to the cingulate cortex from the lateral cortical areas††† or from the posterior thalamus directly into the hypothalamus. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 264 Distinct components of emotional system in the brain were integrated into a more elaborate theoretical structure by Paul MacLean in 1949. 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 265 Amygdala lies in a central position between cortical information processing, limbic circuitry, and hypothalamic outputs to the brainstem that mediate emotional responses. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 265 Schematic diagram of the amygdala, including its main inputs, intrinsic connections, and outputs. (diagram) 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 265 Amygdala lies in the medial temporal lobe, just anterior to the hippocampus, and surrounded by the parahippocampal cortical region. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 266 Amygdala involves a complex of many highly interconnected nuclei. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 266 Major input and output pathways of the amygdala--sensory inputs from the thalamus and cortex project mainly to the lateral and basolateral nuclei, whereas outputs of the amygdala to the cortex and subcortical areas originate mainly in the central and medial nuclei. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 266 Amygdala has several output pathways that direct a widespread influence of emotion expression. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 266 Amygdala projects heavily to multiple basal forebrain areas that secondarily influence widespread cortical areas. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 266 Basal amygdaloid nuclei project to components of the substantia nigra and striatum, and to subiculum (a part of the hippocampus). 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 267 Complicated scheme of outputs from the amygdala supports a broad range of emotional responses in the syndrome of behaviors associated with emotional experience. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 267 High emotional states induce increase heart rate and respiration, decreased salivation, urination and defection, and increased vigilance and freezing. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 267 Amygdala is the recipient of multimodal information about lower-order of visceral structures of the body as well as crude sensory inputs from thalamus, and higher-order sensory information originating in the cortex; internal connectivity within the amygdala combines these inputs. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 267 Amygdala orchestrates an enormous range of influences on behavior. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 267 Amygdala influences the thalamic and cortical areas that provide sensory input, plus direct influences onto the systems important for different forms of memory, specifically the striatum and hippocampal regions. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 267 Direct outputs from the amygdala to the autonomic,††† endocrine,††† and motor systems that generate diverse aspects of emotional expression. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 271 Pathways through the amygdala that support the learning of fearful responses. 4
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 272 Auditory inputs to a part of the thalamus that projects to the primary auditory area of temporal cortex. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 272 Primary auditory area of temporal cortex projects to secondary auditory temporal areas and the perirhinal cortex. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 272 Secondary auditory cortical areas are the source of cortical inputs to the amygdala, particularly the lateral and basolateral nuclei. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 272 Lateral and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala project into the central nucleus, which is the source of output to subcortical areas controlling a broad range of fear-related behaviors, including autonomic and motor responses. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 272 Stereotypic behaviors, such as crouching or freezing. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 272 Striatal system is not involved in emotional learning. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 273 For the simple type of fear conditioning, either the direct thalamic input, which offers a crude identification of sound, or the thalamocortical input pathway, which provides a sophisticated identification of auditory signal, is sufficient to mediate conditioning. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 273 "Contextual" fear conditioning: Rats appear to condition both to the tone and to the environmental context in which tones and shock have previously been paired. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 273 Contextual fear conditioning is mediated by different pathway than tone-cued fear conditioning 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 273 Fear conditioning involves a set of parallel and serial pathways to the amygdala.The most direct pathway is from areas within the auditory thalamus. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 273 Secondary pathway for tone-cued conditioning involves the auditory thalamocortical circuit. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 273 Contextual fear conditioning involves a yet more indirect pathway through the multimodal information that arrives in the hippocampus and is sent to the amygdala via the subiculum. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 274 Fear-potentiated startle -- when animals or people are in a fearful state, the startle response is magnified.Jump at a sudden noise, while listening to a scary story. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Distinct brain system that mediates the perception and appreciation of emotional stimuli as well as emotional expression.The system involves a complex set of cortical and subcortical areas in widespread areas of the brain.The amygdala is a critical element of emotional perception and expression. 6
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Lateral and basolateral components of the amygdala receive both subcortical and cortical sensory inputs from both visceral and external stimuli. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Central and basal nuclei of the amygdala send a broad range of outputs back to cortical areas,†††† to subcortical areas involved in other memory systems and behavior,†††† and to autonomic system and brainstem outputs for the expression of emotion through a variety of systems. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Damage to the amygdala results in selective impairment in emotional perception and appreciation, as well as emotional expression. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Plasticity within the amygdala pathways supports emotional memory in the absence of conscious recollection. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Pathways through the amygdala are enhanced during emotional learning, leading to the appearance of emotional expression to previously neutral stimuli. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 280 Amygdala system mediates fear conditioning and the modulation of other behaviors by conditioned fear (fear-potentiated startle). 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 285 Transition of memories from a short-term store to long-term memory on a timescale of seconds or minutes.††† In principle, these events can occur in any brain structure that participates in memory. 5
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 285 Molecular events that mediates the formation of permanent structural changes associated with memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 286 Highly integrated "cell assemblies" and on intracellular events that initiate nuclear transcription mechanisms for protein synthesis. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 286 Molecular mechanisms of long term potentiation and protein synthesis as required for permanent physiological and microstructural alterations for long term potentiation (LTP) or for learning. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 286 Specific proteins such as CREB are criticalfor the formation of LTP and permanent memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 286 Cellular events began immediately after learning and continue during the minutes and hours after learning. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 286 Treatments that disrupt the activity of cell assemblies and the molecular cascade leading to new protein synthesis are effective only within the relatively brief period, suggesting the timescale of memory consolidation. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 308 Two aspects of memory consolidation: (1) a short-term one that involves molecular and cellular processes that support the fixation of memory within synapses over a period of minutes or hours, and (2) another that involves interactions within the declarative memory system to support a reorganization of memories that occurs over weeks to years. 22
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 311 While the entire cortex is involved in memory processing, the chief brain area that mediates these processes is the prefrontal cortex, in the frontal lobe. 3
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 311 Prefrontal cortex is generally viewed as mediating working memory. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 313 Prefrontal cortex in humans is a diverse area, composed of several distinct subdivisions. 2
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 313 Prefrontal cortex has four general regions based upon functional evidence:(1) medial, (2) dorsolateral, (3) ventrolateral, and (4) orbital areas. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 313 Working memory functions in monkeys and humans have focused on the dorsolateral and ventrolateral areas; these areas are partially distinct in their connections with more posterior parts of the cerebral cortex. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 313 Each of the prefrontal subdivisions receives input from a diverse set of rostral and caudal cortical areas, and each has a distinctive input pattern. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 313 Prefrontal areas are characterized by considerable associative connections with other prefrontal areas. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 314 Dorsolateral prefrontal area receive inputs mainly from medially and dorsolaterally located cortical areas that preferentially represents somatosensory and visuospatial information. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 314 Lateral prefrontal areas receive inputs mainly from ventrolateral and ventromedial cortical areas that represent auditory and visual pattern information. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 315 Prefrontal cortex putative role as "central executive" of the working memory system. 1
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 315 Role of the prefrontal cortex in human memory is viewed as only a part of his role in multiple higher cognitive functions including personality, affect, motor control, language, and problem-solving. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 315 Deficits in memory are secondary to an impairment in attention and problem-solving. 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 315 Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)†† [Fuster; Prefrontal Cortex, 180] 0
Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory 330 Parcellated processing within the prefrontal cortex. 15
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