Gardner - Frames of Mind - Theory of Multiple Intelligences
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Gardner - Frames of Mind 73 Linguistic intelligence
Gardner - Frames of Mind 73 Poetry -- linguistic intelligence exemplified 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 75 Every word has its own penumbras of meaning. 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Poet's logic centers around a sensitivity to shadings of meaning, and what they imply (or preclude) for neighboring words. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Poet must have a keen sensitivity to phonology: the sounds of words and their musical interactions upon one another. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Central metrical aspects of poetry clearly depend upon auditory sensitivity, and poets have often noted their reliance on aural properties. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Words are automatic associations of an oral rather than a visual nature. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Mastery of syntax, the rules governing the ordering of words and their inflections, is an essential of poetry 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Poet must understand, intuitively, the rules of constructing phrases as well as the occasions on which it is permissible to flaunt syntax, to juxtapose words that, according to ordinary grammatical principles, should not occur together. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Fascination with language and facility with words, rather than the desire to express ideas, are the hallmarks on the poet. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 76 Poets possesses a relation to words beyond our ordinary powers, a repository of all the uses to which particular words have been put in previous poems. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 78 Four aspects of linguistic knowledge that have proved of striking importance in human society. 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 78 Rhetorical aspect of language -- the ability to use language to convince other individuals of the course of action. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 78 Mnemonic potential of language -- the capacity to use language to help one remember information. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 78 Language used in explanation. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 78 Revolution in the study of language sparked by the linguist Noam Chomsky has yielded a firmer understanding of what language is and how it works. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 79 Language is a preeminent instance of human intelligence. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 79 Roots of spoken language can be found in child's babbling during the opening months of life. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 79 Even deaf youngsters began to babble early in life. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 79 By the beginning of the second year, infants utter single words, and before long concatenate pairs a words into meaningful phrases. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 79 Three year olds utter strings word strings of considerable complexity, including questions. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 79 By the age of four or five, a child can speak with considerable fluency in ways that closely approximate adult syntax. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 80 Noam Chomsky claims that children must be born with considerable "innate knowledge" about the rules and forms of language, and how to decode and speak in a "natural language." 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 80 How language can be acquired so rapidly and so accurately despite the impurity of speech samples that the child hears.  [Bayesian inference]  0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 80 Syntactic and phonological processes appear to be special, specific to human beings, and unfolding with relatively scant need for support from environmental factors. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 80 Semantic and pragmatic domains of language may exploit more general human information processing mechanisms. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 81 Syntax and phonology lie close to the core of linguistic intelligence, while semantics and pragmatics include inputs from other intelligences (such as logical-mathematical and personal intelligences). 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 85 For right-handed individuals, language is associated with certain areas in the left hemisphere of the brain. 4
Gardner - Frames of Mind 85 Generally, if areas as large as an entire hemisphere of the brain are removed during the first year of life, a child will be able to speak quite well. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 89 Aphasic patients have lost their abilities to be authors; and yet, severely aphasic patients have retained their abilities to be musicians, visual artists, or engineers. 4
Gardner - Frames of Mind 89 Language emerges as a relatively autonomous intelligence. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 89 Evolution of a separate language faculty housed in certain regions of the left hemispheres of human beings. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 89 Narrative, the ability to communicate what has happened in a series of episodes, is associated with the pragmatic functions of language in the right hemisphere. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 89 Even a slight aphasia proves sufficient to destroy an individual's literary talent. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 99 Musical intelligence 10
Gardner - Frames of Mind 99 Musical talent emerges earlier in life than other intelligences. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 100 There have been cases of autism in which a youngster who can barely communicate with anyone else can sing back flawlessly any musical piece he hears. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 101 A musical composer constantly has tones in his head -- always somewhere near the surface of his consciousness, hearing tones, rhythms, and larger musical patterns. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 102 In Aaron Copland's view, the mystery is in the source of the initial musical idea.  Once the idea has come, the process of development and elaboration follows with surprising naturalness, eventually with  inevitability. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 103 Small minority of mankind whose minds secrete music. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 103 The skills involved in listening to music have a clear link to those involved in musical creation. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 104 Active listening to music is a kind of vicarious performance by inwardly reproducing the music. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 105 Schoenberg put it this way: music is a succession of tones and tone combinations so organized as to have an agreeable effect on the listener, and its impression on the intelligence is comprehensible.  These impressions have the power to influence our consciousness and emotions that makes us live in a dreamland of fulfilled desires or in a dreamed hell. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 106 Music cannot express fear, but it's movement in tones, accents and rhythmic design, can be restless, sharply agitated, violent, and even suspenseful. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 106 Music cannot express despair, but it can move slowly, in a prevailingly downward direction; it's texture can become heavy and dark. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 107 Dominant and subdominant have a special relationship to the tonic. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 107 Musical contour when one phrase displays a contour that is the converse of a previous phrase. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 108 A series of levels of language -- from the basic phonological level, through a sensitivity to word order and word meaning, to the ability to appreciate larger entities such as stories. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 108 During infancy, normal children sing as well as babble. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 109 Infants at four months can match rhythmic structure. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 109 In the middle of the second year of life, children can produce small sections of familiar songs such as "EI-EI-O" from "Old Macdonald." 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 112 Musically talented children, tiny group of children who have been singled out by their families and their communities. 3
Gardner - Frames of Mind 112 In Japan, great master Suzuki, individuals can learn to play musical instruments extremely well even at an early age. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 112 Music runs in families -- like Bob, Mozart, or Haydn. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 113 Arthur Rubinstein came from a family, none of whom had the slightest musical gift.  As a toddler in Poland. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 114 Nearly all composers began as performers. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 114 Composing at the level of a world-class artist seems to require at least 10 years, no matter how gifted a person is. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 115 Evolutionary origins of music.  Musical instruments dating back to the Stone Age. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 116 Bird song.  A remarkable mix of innate and environmental factors. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 116 The most intriguing aspect of bird song is its representation in left part of the avian nervous system. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 117 Processes and mechanisms subserving human music and language are distinctive from one another. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 117 Mechanisms by which pitch is comprehended and stored are different from the mechanisms that process other sounds, particularly those of language. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 A person can some suffer significant aphasia without any discernible musical impairment. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 Linguist abilities are lateralized almost exclusively to the left hemisphere in normal right-handed individuals. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 Majority of musical capacities, including the central capacity of sensitivity to pitch, are localized in most normal individuals in the right hemisphere. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 Injury to the right frontal and temporal lobes causes pronounced difficulties in discriminating tones and in reproducing them correctly. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 Injuries in the left hemisphere, which caused devastating difficulties in natural language, generally leave musical abilities relatively unimpaired. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 Ability to perceive and criticize musical performances seems to rely all right hemisphere structures. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 118 With normal individuals, musical abilities turn out to be lateralized to the right hemisphere. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 119 With more musical training, a person is more likely to draw at least partially upon the left hemisphere mechanisms. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 119 Musical competence crossing the corpus callosum as training accrues must not be taken too far.  Even musicians perform chord analysis with the right, rather than with the left hemisphere. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 119 Every normal individual is exposed to natural language primarily through listening to others speak. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 122 In pre-literate cultures, individuals can have prodigious memories for tunes. 3
Gardner - Frames of Mind 122 Musical gifts are often equated with memory for lyrics. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 122 Where rhythmic, dance, or group participation in music is at a premium, individuals with gifts in these areas will be especially esteemed. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 122 Like language, music is a separate intellectual competence. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 123 Close association that exists between music and bodily or gestural language. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 123 Young children relate to music and body movement naturally. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 123 Young children find it virtually impossible to sing without engaging in some accompanying physical activity. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 123 Evolution of music ties it closely to primordial dance. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 123 Many of the most effective methods of teaching music attempt to integrate voice, hand, and body. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 123 Poorer performances in spatial tasks exhibited by females. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 124 Music can serve as a way of capturing feelings, communicating them from the performer or the creator to the attentive listener. The neurology that permit or facilitates this association has by no means been worked out. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 124 Musical competence depends not upon cortical analytical mechanisms alone, but also upon subcortical structures deemed central to feeling and to motivation. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 124 Individuals with damage to the subcortical areas, or with disconnection between cortical and subcortical areas, are often described is being flat and devoid of affect. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 124 A musician with right hemisphere disease lost all anesthetic feelings associated with his performances. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 125 Musical intelligence has its own developmental trajectory as well as his own neurological representation. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 125 Search for parallels between music and language. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 125 The whole semantic aspect of language is radically underdeveloped in music. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 125 Links between music and mathematics. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 126 Sensitivity to mathematical patterns and regularities has characterized many composers, ranging from Bach to Schumann. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 127 Music can stimulate emotions, accelerate the pulse, cure the course of asthma, induced epilepsy, or calm an infant. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 128 Logical-mathematical intelligence 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 135 Whereas logic is involved with statements, mathematics deals with abstract, nonlinguistic entities. 7
Gardner - Frames of Mind 138 Mental powers central to any field are spread out unequally within the population. 3
Gardner - Frames of Mind 138 The ability to invent significant new mathematics is rare. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 139 Many mathematicians report that they sense a solution, or direction, long before they have worked out each step in detail. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 140 If mathematics is to convince others, it must be worked out in precise detail, with nary an error in definition or in chain of reasoning. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 141 To find an analogy between kinds of analogies is a special mathematical delight. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 143 At the center of mathematical prowess lies the ability to recognize significant problems and then to solve them. 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 168 Why are so many mathematicians and scientists attracted to music? 25
Gardner - Frames of Mind 170 Spatial intelligence 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 174 The most elementary operation upon which other aspects of spatial intelligence rest is the ability to perceive a form or an object. 4
Gardner - Frames of Mind 174 Mentally manipulating the form of an object, appreciating how it will be perceived from another viewing angle, is entirely in the spatial realm. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 174 Tasks of transformation can be demanding, as a person is required to mentally rotate complex forms through any number of twists and turns. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 175 Problems in mathematical topology call for the ability to manipulate complex forms in several dimensions. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 175 When a problem is phrased verbally, an option arises to solve the problem strictly through words, without any resort to the creation of a mental image. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 175 Ability to solve spatial problems efficiently is special, apart from straight logical or linguistic ability 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 176 Spatial intelligence entails a number of related capabilities: the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the ability to transform or to recognize a transformation of one element into another; the capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the capacity to produce a graphic likeness of spatial information. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 176 One facet of spatial intelligence emanates from the resemblance that may exist across two seemingly disparate or remote domains of experience.  The metaphoric ability to discern similarities across diverse domains derives in many instances from a manifestation of spatial intelligence. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 177 Unless we can conjure up an image of some process or concept, we will be unable to think clearly about it. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 177 Linguistic code in the left hemisphere, spatial code and the right hemisphere. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 177 Linguistic and spatial intelligences provide the principal sources of storage and solution. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 178 Just as musical and linguistic processing are carried out by different processing centers and need not interfere with one another, so, too, spatial and linguistic faculties seem able to proceed in relatively independent or complementary fashion. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 188 With idiots savants and victims of autism, we have the existence of a single intelligence in the face of an otherwise meager array of abilities. 10
Gardner - Frames of Mind 190 Einstein had an especially well-developed set of capabilities in spatial intelligence. His intuitions were deeply rooted in classical geometry.  He had a very visual mind. He thought in terms of images or experiments carried out in the mind. 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 191 Vivid role of imagery in the solution of problems has often been recounted by scientists and inventors. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 191 Sometimes the actual problem is spatial, as in the case of DNA molecules. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 191 Darwin came to think of the origin of species as an ever-branching tree. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 191 Survival of the fittest as a race among species members. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 192 Physical sciences depend upon spatial ability to a greater extent than do the traditional biological or social sciences, where verbal abilities are relatively more important. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 192 A single area likely to illustrate the centrality of spatial intelligence is likely to be chess. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 199 Art connoisseur -- a person who looks at and enjoys art, who can make fine discriminations, recognize style, and render evaluations. 7
Gardner - Frames of Mind 199 An infant musician's immediate understanding of a fugue. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 199 A youthful mathematician's joy when he first encounters Euclid's proof of the infinity of Prime Numbers. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 200 Art connoisseurship, memory of facts and documents is replaced by the visual memory, of spatial and compositional elements, tone and color. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 201 Union of spatial and logical-mathematical skills, which is required in chess. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 202 Sex differences in spatial abilities reported regularly in our western culture. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 204 A gestalt sensitivity, which is central in spatial intelligence. 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 205 Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 206 Control of bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully form the core of bodily intelligence. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 207 Dancers and swimmers developed keen mastery over the motions of their bodies, as well as individuals such as artisans, ballplayers, and instrumentalists, who are able to manipulate objects with finesse. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 210 Whereas the cortex serves as the "highest" center in most forms of human activity, it is the relatively lowly basal ganglia and the cerebellum that contain the most abstract and complex forms of "representation of movements"; the motor cortex is more directly tied to the spinal cord and the actual execution of specific muscular movements.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 3
Gardner - Frames of Mind 210 Operation of the movement system is extremely complex.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 211 In the case of automatic, highly skilled, and involuntary activities, the whole sequence may be "preprogrammed" so that it can develop as a seamless unit with only the slightest modifications from the sensory systems.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 211 Many motor programs are part of a primate's genetic endowment.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 212 One aspect of human motor activity seems restricted to our species.  This is the capacity for dominance for one half of the body across a range of motor and perceptual activities. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 212 There are apparently no tendencies in baboons or other primates for one specific side of the brain (and the contralateral suck body side) to become generally dominant. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 212 The tendency for left hemisphere dominance in motor activity seems to be a proclivity of human beings, and one that is probably linked to language. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 212 Most normal individuals will have their language capabilities housed in the left hemisphere, and also the left side of their brains will be dominant for motor activity. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 212 Left-handedness (or right handedness for motor activities) seems to run in families. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 215 Higher primates have been using simple tools for several million years. 3
Gardner - Frames of Mind 217 Termite fishing is among the most complex form of tool use found among organisms outside the hominoid stock. 2
Gardner - Frames of Mind 218 Evolution of human beings over the past three or four million years can be described in terms of the increasingly sophisticated use of tools. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 219 Major explosion in human evolution occurred sometime in the last 50,000 years, probably 35 to 40 thousand years ago at the time of Cro-Magnon man. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 219 At the time of Cro-Magnon man there emerge clear signs of human symbolic capacities, including pictures of animals and female figures in the Paleolithic caves of southern Europe. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 219 Realistic dances are sketched on the walls of many of the Paleolithic caves of southern Europe. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 222 Of all other uses of the body, none has reach greater heights or has been more variably deployed by cultures than the dance. 3
Gardner - Frames of Mind 222 Dance goes back many thousands of years, in all probability to Paleolithic times, for masked dancing sorcerers and hunters are depicted in the ancient caves of Europe and in the mountain ranges of South Africa. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 222 Of all the human activities depicted in the ancient caves, dancing is the second most prominent, right after hunting. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can reflect and validate social organization. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can serve as a means of secular or religious expression. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can function as a social diversion or recreational activity. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can function as a psychological outlet and release. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can function as a statement of aesthetic values or an aesthetic value itself. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can serve an educational purpose, in an initiation rite, by acting out transformation through which an individual will eventually pass. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can be used to embody the supernatural, as when medicine men dance to invoke the spirits. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 223 Dance can be used for sexual selection, in cases where women can discriminate among men in terms of their dance performance and endurance. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 237 Personal intelligences 14
Gardner - Frames of Mind 237 Sense of Self 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 237 William James meeting Sigmund Freud (psychoanalysis). 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 238 What united Sigmund Freud and William James was a belief in the importance of the individual self -- a conviction that psychology must be built around the concept of the person, his personality, his growth, his fate. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 239 Personnel intelligence involves two aspects: (1) the internal aspects of a person's feelings and emotions, and (2) the ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals and, in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. 1
Gardner - Frames of Mind 239 In its most primitive form, intrapersonal intelligence amounts to little more than the capacity to distinguish a feeling of pleasure from one of pain. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 239 At its most advanced level, intrapersonal intelligence allows one to detect and to symbolize complex and highly differentiated sets of feelings. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 239 In an advanced form, interpersonal intelligence permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and desires -- even when these have been hidden -- of many other individuals. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 239 We see highly developed forms of interpersonal intelligence in political and religious leaders (Mahatma Gandhi or Lyndon Johnson), in skilled parents and teachers, and in individuals in the helping professions, be they therapists, counselors, or shamans. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind 251 Adolescence is a time in which individuals must bring together their personal knowledge into an organized sense of self. 12
Gardner - Frames of Mind 251 Formation of the sense of self is a process in which an individual must come to terms with his own personal feelings, motivations, and desires, including powerful sexual ones. 0
Gardner - Frames of Mind