Michael Gazzaniga; Human: The Science Behind What Makes Us Unique
Book Page   Topic    
Gazzaniga; Human 11 All mammalian brains have the same components.
Gazzaniga; Human 11 Evolutionary changes in cognitive capacity are the result of brain reorganization rather than changes in size alone. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 11 Many mammals have larger brains than humans in terms of absolute brain size. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 12 Human brains are four to five times larger than would be expected for an average mammal of comparable size. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 12 Chimp's brain weighs about 400 g; a human's brain is about 1300 g. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 12 Neanderthals had a body mass comparable to that of humans. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 12 Neanderthals about 50,000 years ago began to paint their bodies and inter their dead.  This may indicate some self-awareness and the beginnings of symbolic thought. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 12 Neanderthal material culture was not nearly as complex as that of contemporaneous Homo sapiens. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 13 For the past 45 years Michael Gazzaniga has been studying split brain patients. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 13 Split-brain patients have had the two hemispheres of the brain surgically separated in an effort to control their epilepsy. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 13 If a gene is recessive, in order for it to cause a visible or detectable characteristic, there must be a copy of it from both the mother and father. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 14 Some genes are experiencing ongoing positive selection in humans. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 14 One genetic variant of microcephalin arose approximately 30,000 years ago, which coincides with the emergence of culturally modern humans, and it increased in frequency too rapidly to be compatible with random genetic drift or population migration. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 14 The ASPM gene variant arose about 5,800 years ago, coincident with the spread of agriculture, cities, and the first record of written language.  It's high frequencies in the population indicates strong positive selection. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 17 Eminent experimental psychologist Carl Lashley once advised Michael Gazzaniga's mentor, Roger Sperry. 3
Gazzaniga; Human 17 Primate brains aren't easy to come by.  Chimpanzees are on the endangered species list.  It's hard to get a guerrilla to lie still. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 17 Cortex is highly interconnected.  Of all brain connections, 75% are within the cortex; the other 25% are input and output connections to other parts of the brain and nervous system. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 18 Neocortex is divided anatomically into four lobes. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 19 Frontal lobe has much to do with the higher functioning aspects of human behavior such as language and thought. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Frontal lobe may have had enlargement of selected, but not all, cortical areas. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Frontal lobe is richly interconnected. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Subsectors of the frontal lobe may have undergone a modification of local circuitry. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Distinction should be made between the frontal and prefrontal cortex. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobe. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Prefrontal cortex is distinguished from the rest of the frontal cortex by having an additional layer of neurons, called an internal granular layer IV. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Prefrontal cortex is implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors, in personality, in memory, and in aspects of language and social behavior. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Percentage of frontal to prefrontal cortex may have changed during evolution. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Motor cortex portion of a human's frontal lobe is smaller than a chimp's. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Area10 in the lateral prefrontal cortex, is almost twice as large in humans as in apes. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 20 Area10 in the lateral prefrontal cortex is involved with memory and planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, initiating appropriate behavior and inhibiting inappropriate behavior, learning rules, and picking out relevant information from what is perceived through the senses. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 White matter lies underneath the cortex and is made up of nerve fibers connecting the cortex with the rest of the nervous system. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 21 Prefrontal white matter is disproportionately larger in humans than other primates,  which suggests a higher degree of connectivity in this part of the brain. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 The more you know, the faster your brain works. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 Nonprimate mammals have two major regions in the prefrontal cortex, and primates have three. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 The original two regions of prefrontal cortex, which are present in other mammals and evolved earlier, are the orbital prefrontal region, which responds to external stimuli that are likely to be rewarding, and the anterior cingulate cortex, which process information about the body's internal state. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 Orbital prefrontal region and the anterior cingulate cortex, the two original regions of prefrontal cortex work together to contribute to the emotional aspects of decision making. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 The third and new region of prefrontal cortex is called the lateral prefrontal cortex and is where area 10 is. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 The new region of lateral prefrontal cortex is apparently unique to primates and is concerned mainly with the rational aspects of decision-making, which are our conscious efforts to reach a decision. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 21 Lateral prefrontal cortex is densely interconnected with other regions that are larger in human brains -- the posterior parietal cortex and the temporal lobe cortex -- and outside the neocortex, it is connected to several cell groups in the dorsal thalamus that are also disproportionately enlarged, the medial dorsal nucleus and pulvinar. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 22 What has enlarged in human evolution is not a random group of areas and nuclei, but an entire circuit. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 22 The lateral prefrontal cortex circuit has made humans more flexible and capable of finding novel solutions to problems.  Included in this circuit is the ability to inhibit automatic responses, thereby permitting novel responses. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 22 Cerebellum is enlarged in humans.  One part of the cerebellum, the dentate nucleus in particular, is larger than expected.  This area receives input neurons from the lateral cerebellar cortex and send output neurons to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus.  The thalamus sorts and directs sensory information arriving from other parts of the nervous system.  Growing evidence that the cerebellum contributes to cognitive as well as motor function. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 23 Cortical areas in the frontal lobe are involved with impulse control, decision-making and judgment, language, memory, problem solving, sexual behavior, socialization, and spontaneity. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 23 Frontal lobe is the location of the brain's "executive," which plans, controls, and coordinates behavior and also controls voluntary movements of specific body parts, especially the hands. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 23 Cortical areas in the parietal lobe are involved with integrating sensory information from various parts of the body, with visual-spatial processing, and with the manipulation of objects. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 23 Primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe is involved in hearing. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 23 In humans, areas in the left temporal lobe are specialized for language functions such as speech, language comprehension, naming things, and verbal memory. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 23 Prosody, or the rhythm of speech, is processed in the right temporal lobe. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 23 Areas in the ventral part of the temporal lobes also do some specific visual processing for faces, scenes, and object recognition. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 24 Medial parts of the temporal lobes are busy with memory for events, experiences, and facts. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 24 Hippocampuses, which are evolutionarily ancient structures deep inside the temporal lobes, are involved in the process whereby short-term memory gets transferred to long-term memory, and also spatial memory. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 28 For speech, each hemisphere is concerned with different aspects.  Wernicke's area in the left hemisphere recognizes distinctive parts of speech, and an area in the right auditory cortex recognize prosody, the metric structure of speech. 4
Gazzaniga; Human 28 A component of Wernicke'sarea is larger in the left hemisphere than the right. Microscopic architecture of Wernicke's area is different from the corresponding part of the right hemisphere -- many columns are wider, and the spaces between them are greater, and this lateralized change in architecture is unique to humans. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 31 Split-brain research has demonstrated that the left hemisphere has marked limitations in perceptual functions and the right hemisphere has prominent limitations in cognitive functions. 3
Gazzaniga; Human 32 Discovery of mirror neurons by Giacomo Rizzolatti. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 34 FOX genes are a big family of genes that code for proteins that have a string of 82 to a 100 amino acids forming a specific shape that binds to a specific area of DNA like a key fitting into a lock. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 34 FOX proteins are a type of transcription factor. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 35 It is postulated that reduced amounts of FOXP2 protein at specific stages in neurogenesis led to abnormalities in the neural structures that are important for language and speech. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 35 FOXP2 gene is present in a broad range of mammals. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 48 Theory of Mind -- humans have an innate ability to understand that other humans have minds. 13
Gazzaniga; Human 49 First called Theory of Mind (TOM) by David Premack. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 49 Children and adults with autism have deficits in theory of mind and are impaired in their ability to reason about the mental states of others, yet their other cognitive abilities remain intact or increased. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 55 Language is a system of abstract symbols and the grammar (rules) in which the symbols are manipulated. 6
Gazzaniga; Human 55 Language does not have to be spoken or written.  It can be made with gestures, such as American Sign Language. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 55 Syntax is the pattern of formation of sentences or phrases that govern the way words in a sentence come together. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 55 Human language can string phrases together indefinitely to produce an unlimited number of sentences that are all different and have never been said before. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 56 Noam Chomsky, the distinguished linguist at MIT. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 56 fMRI studies have confirmed that both Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the two main language mediating areas in the left side of the brain that are activated when hearing people speak, are also activated in deaf signers while they watch sentences in ASL. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 62 When deaf subjects read, they do not activate the Broca's and Wernicke's areas. 6
Gazzaniga; Human 63 First discovered mirror neurons in the premotor area (area F5) of the brain of monkeys in 1996. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 63 It has been suggested that the mirror system was fundamental for the development of speech, and before speech, for other forms of intentional communication, such as facial expression and hand gestures. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 63 Individuals recognize actions made by others because the pattern of firing neurons made when observing an action is similar to the pattern produced to generate the action. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 64 Watching an action or getting ready to perform an action, the premotor areas are on alert. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 64 There is a system of inhibition to prevent observers of an action from emitting a motor behavior that mimics it. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 64 Voluntary control of the mirror neurons is a necessary foundation for the beginning of language. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 64 It has been surmised that the first gestures used from individual to individual were  orofacial. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 64 Jane Goodall states that long bouts of eye contact may accompany friendly interactions. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 65 Monkeys, apes, and humans still use orofacial gestures as their natural way to communicate. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 65 Lip smacks and tongue smacks persist in humans, where they form syllables in speech production. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 66 A simple gesture, accompanied by suitable facial expressions, can often take the place of a whole eloquent speech. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 67 Most cognitive processes have been found to occur subconsciously. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 67 One of the best-studied emotions is fear. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 67 Sensory inputs go to the thalamus. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 67 There is a shortcut through the amygdala which lies under the thalamus and keeps track of everything that is streaming through. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 67 If the thalamus recognizes a pattern that was associated with danger in the past, it has a direct connection to the brainstem, which then activates the fight-or-flight response and rings the alarm.   [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 67 The faster pathway through the amygdala, the old fight-or-flight response, is present in other mammals.   [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 72 Chimps are known to throw rocks and branches. 5
Gazzaniga; Human 72 Antonio Damasio has studied a group of patients with damage to the ventromedial part of the prefrontal cortex.  They all lack initiative, can't make a decision and are unemotional. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 73 Pure reason is not enough to make a decision.  Reason makes the list of options, but emotion makes the choice. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 73 Emotions play a part in all decisions. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 81 Richard Dawkins built on the work done by William Hamilton in the early 1960s at the London School of Economics and the University College of London, who had established a Darwinian view of altruism. 8
Gazzaniga; Human 82 Edward O. Wilson has concluded that the last 40 years of research has provided new empirical evidence that supports the theory of group selection and its theoretical plausibility as an evolutionary force. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 84 For any characteristic to be selected in a competitive environment, it has to provide a survival advantage to the individual. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 85 Reciprocal altruism is very rare in the animal world. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 111 Becoming highly social is what human is all about. 26
Gazzaniga; Human 111 As the human brain became larger, so too did the social group size. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 112 Higher intellectual skills arose as an adaptation to our new newly evolved social needs. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 113 Six billion people on earth. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 114 For moral decisions, is it the rational self or the intuitive self? 1
Gazzaniga; Human 116 All cultures have incest taboos. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 119 Phineas Gage 3
Gazzaniga; Human 120 Antonio Damasio has Gage-like patients with similar lesions. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 120 Emotions play a major role in decision-making. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 122 Biased toward committing errors that are less costly. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 122 Pick angry faces out of a neutral crowd faster than happy faces. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 122 Extremely immoral acts have an almost indelible negative effect. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 122 Negative stimuli raise blood pressure, cardiac output, and heart rate.  They grab our attention (newspapers thrive on bad news). 0
Gazzaniga; Human 123 Incoming information passes first through the thalamus, then to the sensory processing areas, and then to the frontal cortex. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 123 There are shortcuts through the amygdala, which respond to patterns that were associated with danger in the past. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 123 Amygdala not only affects your motor system but also can change your thinking.  A quick emotional response of fear or disgust or anger will influence how you process further information.  It concentrates your attention on the negative stimulus. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 123 Emergency status given to negative stimuli. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 123 Automatic mimicry increases liking and serves the purpose of facilitating social interactions. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 124 When you first meet someone, you get an impression, and these first impressions are usually almost identical to ones formed with longer contact and observation. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 124 Mimicry is what makes a newborn baby copy her mother's expressions, smiling when she does. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 124 People tend to agree with others whom they like. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 124 Runaway trolley -- neurobiology of moral judgments. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 155 Many stimuli induce an automatic process of approval (approach) or disapproval (avoid). 31
Gazzaniga; Human 157 Some of our repugnance for killing, stealing, incest, and dozens of other actions is the result of our natural biology. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 157 Conscious rational mind and the unconscious emotional system. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 157 Moral emotions of guilt, shame, embarrassment, blushing, and crying. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 157 Purity of either mind or body, a uniquely human construct with its roots in the moral emotion of disgust. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 183 We can change our emotions and the way we feel by the way we think.  One way this is accomplished is by reappraisal. 26
Gazzaniga; Human 183 Conscious reappraisal of an emotion  -- reappraise the situation in a positive way. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 183 Reappraisal draws attention to the emotion and requires a voluntary cognitive assessment. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 184 Left hemisphere is known to be associated with evaluating positive emotions. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 184 People who show a higher resting activity in the left hemisphere have more resistance to depression, which may be because of their cognitive ability to decrease negative emotional processing. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 184 Suppression -- voluntarily not showing any sign of an emotion. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 187 Imagination 3
Gazzaniga; Human 189 Self-awareness 2
Gazzaniga; Human 190 People tend to think that others know and believe what they know and believe, and also tend to overestimate the knowledge of others. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 191 Junction of the right inferior parietal cortex with the posterior temporal cortex plays a critical role in the distinction between one's own action and another's. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 191 Temperoparietal junction (TPJ), a busy place, integrates input from many different parts of the brain, including the lateral and posterior thalamus; the visual, auditory, somesthetic and limbic areas; and reciprocal connections with the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 192 Neural systems that are impaired at an early age are critical for the acquisition of social knowledge. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 199 People are capable of voluntarily, deliberately switching from one abstract perspective to another with easy flexibility. 7
Gazzaniga; Human 205 Art is one of those human universals.  All cultures have some form of it, whether it is painting, dance, story, song, or other forms. 6
Gazzaniga; Human 206 Steven Pinker, who has penetrating ideas on just about everything. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 207 Pinker asks: what is it about the mind that lets people take pleasure in shapes and colors and sounds and jokes and stories and myths? 1
Gazzaniga; Human 208 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.  Beauty is a judgment. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 210 Some objects are processed more easily than others because they contain certain features the brain is hardwired to process, which it does quickly, such as symmetry. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 210 Ease of processing can be influenced by perceptual or conceptual priming. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 210 When we perceive something we processed easily, we get a positive feeling. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 210 Positive feeling contributes to our value judgment as to whether something is pleasing or not. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 211 Even though there are hardwired preferences due to ease of processing, different experiences can influence processing fluency in novel areas, and new neural connections can affect asthetic judgment. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 211 Processing fluency can be enhanced by experience. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 214 Stone hand axes have been found with the remains of Homo erectus dated from 1.4 million years ago, and examples have been found dating until about 128,000 years ago. 3
Gazzaniga; Human 214 Basic design of the early hand ax and its production technique remained stable over many thousands of years. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 215 In the last 40,000 years there was an explosion of artistic and creative activity that included cave paintings and engravings found from Australia to Europe.  As many as 10,000 sculpted and engraved objects made from ivory, bone, antler, stone, wood, and clay found across Europe to Siberia, and sophisticated tools, such as sewing needles, oil lamps, harpoons, spear throwers, drills, and rope. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 216 Suddenly about 40,000 years ago, anatomically modern Homo sapiens produced an unprecedented burst of creative anesthetic activity, began painting pictures, wearing jewelry, and coming up with a host of new useful items. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 216 Song, dance, storytelling, and painting are universal in all cultures. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 216 Arts give pleasure -- our motivation system seeks them out because they reward us by making us feel good. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 216 Making something special, as distinguished from something ordinary, appeals to the emotions through the rhythms and textures and colors that it employs. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 216 A cohesive group might want to make something special out of the ordinary, having to do with magic or the supernatural world, in the form of rituals. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 217 Whatever we call art, we are acknowledging that it is special in some way. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 217 Creation of art in terms of human evolution is to facilitate socially important behavior, especially ceremonies, in which group values often of a sacred or spiritual nature are expressed and transmitted. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 218 When goals are attained, the body rewards us with a pleasure sensation. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 218 We get a pleasure signal when we need something sweet and full of fat. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 218 In our ancestral environment, it would have been fitness-enhancing to have the motivation to find any sweet food (ripe fruit) and fats. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 219 Attraction to fictional experience. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 219 Brain contains reward systems that make fictional experiences enjoyable. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 219 Children with autism have severely limited imagination, although the general intelligence is usually normal. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 219 In children, pretend play begins to appear about 18 months. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 220 Reward system that allows us to enjoy fiction. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 221 We are born with brains that have a lot of hardwired systems. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 222 Baby babbles to develop a language system. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 223 Our evolved inheritance is very rich compared to a blank slate, but very impoverished compared to a fully realized person. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 223 Many natural phenomena are considered beautiful, such as a starry night, natural landscapes, the pattering of rain, and running water. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 224 Lean back from the campfire and gaze up at the desert sky, or lean back in our chair while gazing up at a leafy plane tree. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 224 Pretend play can develop skills that are better learned in a play situation rather than when they made need to be actually used. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 225 Human ability to use contingently true information is unique.  Our brains store not just absolute facts but information that may be true only temporarily, or locally, or to a specific individual. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 225 Humans can mix and match information from different times, places, and input types, and we can make inferences based on the source. This allows us to separate fact from fiction. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 226 Arts may be a useful form of learning.  It has been suggested that arts help us to categorize, increase our predictive power, react well in different situations. Thus, arts do contribute to survival. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 226 Every decision is funneled through the approach-or-withdraw module in the brain -- Is it safe or not?  And these decisions happen fast. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 226 People will judge whether they like or dislike a webpage in 0.5 seconds. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 226 More is known about the visual system than about other systems. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 226 Certain elements can be extracted from an image extremely quickly.  A preference for symmetry has been shown to exist cross-culturally. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 227 People like curved objects better than angular ones. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 228 A shape or form is aesthetically pleasing because it is more effectively and more easily processed. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 228 People recognize objects faster when there is a high contrast between an object and its background. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 228 Contrast makes identification easier.  Objects are more easily processed with higher contrast. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 228 People like higher contrast pictures. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 228 Innate preference for natural landscapes.  In urban landscapes, people prefer those that contain some vegetation. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 228 People always prefer to have water in their landscapes. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 229 Many natural objects have fractal geometry, consisting of patterns that recur at increasing magnifications.  Mountains, clouds, coastlines, rivers with all of their tributaries, and branching trees all have fractal geometry. Also our circulatory system and our lungs. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 230 Humans generally prefer scenes with a D (fractal density) of 1.3 and low complexity. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 230 Preference for fractal patterns with a D of 1.3 extends from natural scenes to art and photography. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 230 The eye fixates predominately on the borders of objects while examining a scene. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 230 Edge contours play a dominant role in the perception of fractals. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 230 People like urban skyline scenes with fractal values of 1.3. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 230 There is plenty of evidence that there are some hardwired processes that are influencing our preferences and our visceral reactions. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 231 We like things that are familiar. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 231 Semir Zeki at University College London. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 232 When people viewed paintings, the orbitofrontal cortex, which is known to be engaged during perception of rewarding stimuli, was active, and was more active when viewing a beautiful painting. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 232 Motor cortex is also active, becoming more active when viewing an ugly painting, as with other unpleasant stimuli, such as transgressions of social norms, and with fearful stimuli, including scary voices and faces, and anger. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 232 We are directly wired to be best and fastest at avoiding danger, which our emotions categorize as unpleasant or negative. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 233 Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is known to be critical for the monitoring of events in working memory and, along with the cingulate cortex, is known to be active in decision-making. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 233 Cingulate cortex was active in deciding between beautiful and not beautiful, but the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex was active only when the decision was "beautiful." 0
Gazzaniga; Human 233 Left hemisphere is more active in aesthetic judgments. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 233 When something is deemed beautiful, we have more than an emotional reaction.    Other parts of our brain are engaged. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 233 Music is a uniquely human endeavor.  Only humans compose music, learn to play musical instruments, and then play them together in cooperative ensembles, bands, and orchestras.  None of the great apes create music or sing. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 234 Music as another one of those human universals. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 236 Babies can tell consonance from dissonance from the age of two months, and they preferr consonance and harmonic music to dissonant. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 236 Even fetuses respond to music with changes of heart rate. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 236 Music has proven to be a difficult research topic.  It has pitch, timbre, meter, rhythm, harmony, melody, loudness, and tempo.  These are part of musical syntax and also part of verbal syntax. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 237 Music can convey emotion. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 237 Music can convey meaning other than emotion. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 237 Like language, music has phrase structure and recursion. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 238 Noise with 1/f spectra; it is partially random and partially predictable. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 238 Amplitude and pitch fluctuations of natural sounds such as running water, rain, and wind, often exhibit 1/f spectra. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 239 Human listeners reportedly preferred 1/f-spectra melodies to melodies with faster or slower changes in pitch and loudness. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 239 Many auditory cortical neurons are tuned to the dynamical properties of the natural acoustic environment. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 239 Music can elicit emotions.  You can get so emotional that you get a physiologic reaction, such as the chill down your spine and changes in your heart rate. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 239 It is well established the body produces a natural high by releasing its own opioid when we listen to music that we like. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 239 Brain scans done on musicians as they listen to music that gave them the "chills," activated the same brain structures that are active in response to other euphoria inducing activities, such as eating food (fats and sugars), sex, and downing recreational drugs. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Researchers found a correlation between dopamine release and the response to pleasant music. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Dopamine is known to regulate opiod transmission, and increased levels are theorized to cause positive affect. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Release of dopamine also occurs as a reward when a person drinks water and eats food, and also is the reinforcing effect of addictive drugs. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Music does increase positive affect, just as some visual stimuli do. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Being in a good mood increases cognitive flexibility and facilitates creative problem-solving. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Having a positive affect makes tasks seem more rich and interesting. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 240 Listening to music you prefer puts you in a better mood. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 241 When you are in a good mood, you get aroused, and this can lead to enhanced performance on a variety of tests of cognitive ability. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 241 Music lessons in childhood are associated with small but long-lasting increases in IQ. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 241 Musicians are using many skills simultaneously. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 241 Musicians use intonation and timing to imply emotion. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 242 Musicians often sing and play at the same time. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 242 Certain brain regions in musicians are bigger than in nonmusicians. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 242 Violin players have a larger brain region for the fingers of their left hand. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 242 Professional musicians (keyboard players) have more gray matter volume in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions compared with amateur musicians and nonmusicians. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 242 Musical training can increase the size of certain neural structures. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 243 One aspect of attention, executive attention, concerns the mechanisms for self-regulation of cognition and emotion, such as concentration and impulse control. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 249 Intuitive biology 6
Gazzaniga; Human 250 If a way of thinking comes easily to us, we probably have some cognitive mechanism that is set up to think in that way. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 250 Intuitive biology refers to the way our brains categorize living things. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 250 Researchers have claimed there are domain-specific knowledge systems for animate and inanimate objects that have distinct neural mechanisms. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 250 There are patients with brain damage who are very poor at recognizing animals but not man-made artifacts, and vice versa. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 252 Studying babies helps us identify what knowledge is hardwired in humans. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 252 Babies have categorizing domain-specific neural pathways to identify human faces and also to register biological motion. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 252 Young infants have any abilities to distinguish animate from an inanimate objects. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 252 Automatically the brain bestows on animate objects some properties common to things that are alive. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 258 You can't actually feel another person's feelings, you infer them through perceptions, the observation of their actions and facial expressions. 6
Gazzaniga; Human 258 Your dog is loyal to the audible, visible, sniffable you, not the essence of you. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 258 Intuitive knowledge of physics. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 260 Motor regions of the brain activate when tools are the objects and when the artifact is manipulable, but not with man-made objects in general. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 261 We use our theory-of-mind systems (TOM) (our intuitive understanding that others have invisible states -- beliefs, desires, intentions, and goals -- and that these can cause behaviors and events) to ascribe the same characteristics not only to other humans but also to the animate category in general. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 261 We are wired to think animate objects have TOM. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 262 Teleological thinking explains a phenomenon by invoking an intended design. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 265 Intuitive psychology is a separate domain from intuitive biology and physics. 3
Gazzaniga; Human 266 The divide between domains is apparent in autism, in which the lack of social understanding is a prominent feature. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 266 Children with autism rarely engage in imaginative playing, and many do not speak at all. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 266 Autistic children do not possess a theory-of-mind; they lack an intuitive psychology. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 273 Much of the information that we use from memories and past experience is highly colored by our nonreflective intuitive beliefs, and some of it can be wrong. 7
Gazzaniga; Human 273 Very difficult to separate the intuitive from the verifiable. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 273 To separate the verifiable from the non-verifiable is a conscious, tedious process. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 273 Separating the verifiable from the non-verifiable takes energy and perseverance and training.  It is called analytical thinking.  It is what science is all about.  It is uniquely human. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 274 Current evidence suggests that humans are the only animals that reason about, unobservable forces. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 274 Humans alone form concepts about imperceptible things and try to explain an effect as having been caused by something. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 276 Conscious awareness 2
Gazzaniga; Human 278 Consciousness has been rather like the "Holy Grail" of neuroscience. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 278 Neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). 0
Gazzaniga; Human 279 Antonio Damasio considers consciousness in two aspects -- core consciousness and extended consciousness. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 279 Extended consciousness is what we normally think of when we think of being conscious. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 279 Highest level of consciousness is knowing that one is aware of one's surroundings. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 279 Physical basis of conscious experience. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 280 All vertebrate animals have a brain stem. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 280 Brainstem is a complicated place.  It is like the subbasements in skyscrapers, full of pipes, events, wires, and gauges, which are connected to the rest of the building.  They keep everything running smoothly. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 280 Groups of neurons, known as nuclei. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 280 Main job of the brain stem nuclei is the homeostatic regulation of both body and brain. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 280 Some neurons in the brain stem are required for consciousness.  They are connected with the intralaminar nuclei (ILN) of the thalamus. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 280 Some brainstem nuclei are required to modulate consciousness, like a rheostat. They make up part of the arousal system.  They are connected to the basal forebrain, the hypothalamus, and directly to the cortex. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 281 Two INLs in the thalamus, one on the right side, one on the left.  Thalamus itself is about the size of a walnut and sits astride the midline in the center of the brain. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 281 First requirement for consciousness -- connection of the brain stem to the thalamus must be active, and at least one of the INLs must be up and running. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 281 Thalamus is well-connected.  Neural connections link the thalamus to specific regions all over the cortex, and these regions send connections straight back to the thalamus.  Thalamus has thalamocortical loops. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 281 INLs of the thalamus connect to the anterior portion of the cingulate cortex.  Lesions anywhere from the brain stem to the cingulate cortex can disrupt core consciousness. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 It appears that the cingulate cortex is where core consciousness and extended consciousness overlap. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 282 Cingulate cortex lies above the corpus callosum. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 Antonio Damasio reports that patients with lesions in their cingulate cortex have disruptions in both core consciousness and extended consciousness, but oftentimes can recover core consciousness. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 During conscious tasks, connections are active from the cingulate cortex to brain areas supporting the five neural networks for (1) memory, (2) perception, (3) motor action, (4) evaluation, and (5) attention. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 While engaging in a wide assortment of conscious tasks that require different types of brain activity, the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is always activated along with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 The DLPFC and ACC have reciprocal connections, i.e. loops. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 The DLPFC is also a hotbed of connections to the same five neural networks for which the ACC is connected. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 The long-distance neurons originate mostly from the pyramidal cells of Layers 2 and 3. These layers are actually thicker in the DLPFC and the inferior parietal cortex. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 282 There are areas in the brain that are more specialized.  Loss of a specific ability, not consciousness itself. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 283 Modules in the brain, each has its specific contribution. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 283 Many modules in the brain are all working automatically, below the level of consciousness. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 283 All of the unconscious activity is also contributing to and shaping what comes to the conscious surface. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 283 Human brain has approximately 100 billion neurons, and each neuron on average connects to about 1000 other neurons. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 283 Brain has about 100 trillion synaptic connections. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 284 Some types of brain processing are called executive functions. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 284 Some control processing is going on, and there must be a mechanism that supports flexible links among the processing modules.  Many theoretical models of this mechanism have been proposed including the central executive, the supervisory attention system, the anterior attention system, the global workspace, and the dynamic core. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 285 Gatekeeper to consciousness -- Attention. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 286 Brain lesions in the parietal lobe that affect attention can also affect consciousness. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 287 Hemineglect -- lack of awareness for sensory events located towards the side opposite the side of the lesion. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 288 Joseph Ledoux 1
Gazzaniga; Human 288 What kinds of processes could go on subconsciously? 0
Gazzaniga; Human 289 Corpus callosum contains about 200 million neurons that originate in layers 2 and 3, where most of the long-distance neurons originate. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 289 Surgical procedure to cut the corpus callosum is the last-ditch treatment effort for patients with severe intractable epilepsy. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 289 Only 10 split brain patients had been well tested. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 289 First split brain procedure was in 1940. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 289 Epileptic seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges that in some people spread from one hemisphere to the other. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 290 Split-brain treatment was a great success.  Most patients' seizure activity decreased 60 to 70%, and they felt just fine; no split personality, no split consciousness. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 290 Why don't split-brain patients have dual consciousness? 0
Gazzaniga; Human 291 Left hemisphere is specialized for language, speech, and intelligent behavior, while the right hemisphere is specialized for such task as recognizing faces, focusing attention, and making perceptual distinctions. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 292 Reflexive (bottom-up) attention happens independently in the two hemispheres, while voluntary attention involves hemispheric competition, with control preferentially lateralized to the left hemisphere. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 292 Right hemisphere attends to the entire visual field, whereas the left hemisphere attends only to the right field. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 292 Left hemisphere is specialized for intelligent behavior. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 292 Although the right hemisphere remains superior to the isolated left hemisphere for some perceptual and attentional skills, and perhaps also emotions, it is poor at problem solving and many other mental activities. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 294 Left hemisphere engages in the human tendency to find order in chaos. Left hemisphere persists in forming hypotheses about the sequence of events, even in the face of evidence that no pattern exists.   [Gestalt laws]  [Bayesian inference] 2
Gazzaniga; Human 303 Memory stores two basic types of information -- procedural and declarative. 9
Gazzaniga; Human 303 Two types of declarative memory -- semantic and episodic. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 303 Sematic memory provides knowledge from the point of view of an observer of the world rather than that of a participant. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 303 Episodic memory retains events that were experienced by the self at a particular place and time. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 303 Episodic memory is uniquely human. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 304 Episodic memory always includes the self as the agent or recipient of some action. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 305 Children who are three to four years old include themselves as a part of the memory. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 305 Children less than four years old have no knowledge of timescales. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 305 Later-developing episodic memory explains why there is scant autobiographical memory from our very early years. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 306 Aspects of self-knowledge are distributed throughout the cortex. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 306 Frontal regions of the left hemisphere play a pivotal role for retrieval and reconstruction of autobiographical knowledge. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 307 Face recognition is typically reliant on structures in the right cerebral hemisphere. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 308 Sense of self arises out of distributed networks in both hemispheres. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 308 Both hemispheres have processing specializations that contribute to a sense of self. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 308 Sense of self is constructed by the left hemisphere interpreter on the basis of input from distributed networks. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 309 Basic step into extended consciousness is becoming self-aware to some degree. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 309 Self awareness means being the object of one's own attention. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 309 Animal self-awareness. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 310 All social, sexually reproducing organisms seem to be equipped with neural machinery for discriminating:    males from females,    juveniles from adults, and    relatives from nonrelatives. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 310 Your dog isn't all that interested when you try get him to look in the mirror. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 311 Some researchers have suggested that mirror self-recognition implies the presence of a self-concept and self-awareness. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 311 Some patients with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces) cannot recognize themselves in a mirror. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 315 While birds lack the cortical structure of mammals, they have many brain structures that serve the same purpose as mammalian brain structures, and have similar thalamocortical loop connections. 4
Gazzaniga; Human 315 Birds have loop connections similar to the loop connections proposed to allow extended consciousness in humans. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 320 Current evidence suggests that animals do not have episodic memory and do not time-travel. 5
Gazzaniga; Human 335 Cochlear implant is the most successful neural implant. 15
Gazzaniga; Human 338 Locked-in Syndrome -- lesion to the ventral part of the pons in the brain stem. 3
Gazzaniga; Human 338 Locked-in syndrome patients are awake and conscious and intelligent but can't move any skeletal muscles.  They can't talk or eat or drink. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 338 The most that locked-in syndrome patients can do is voluntarily blink or move their eyes. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 343 Posterior parietal cortex is situated between the sensory and motor regions and serves as a bridge from sensation to action. 5
Gazzaniga; Human 343 Anatomical map of plans exist within the posterior parietal cortex, with one part devoted to planning eye movements and another part to planning arm movements. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 343 Action plans in the posterior parietal cortex exist in cognitive form, specifying the goal of intended movements rather than particular signals for the biomechanical movements. All the detailed movements are encoded in the motor cortex.   [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 344 Scalp-recorded EEG rhythms reflect in a noisy and degrading fashion the combined activity of many millions of neurons and synapses. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 344 Job of creating motor outputs is a concerted effort of the entire CNS from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 344 When you walk, talk, high jump, etc, there is a collaboration among areas, from the sensory neurons up the spinal cord to the brainstem and eventually to the cortex and back down through the basal ganglia, thalamic nuclei, cerebellum, brainstem nuclei, and spinal cord to the interneurons and motor neurons.   [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 344 Hippocampus is located deep in the brain and is evolutionarily old, which means that it is present in less evolved animals. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 344 Hippocampus connections are less complicated than other parts of the brain. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 358 The term artificial intelligence (AI) originated in 1956, when John McCarthy from Dartmouth, Marvin Minsky from Harvard, Nathaniel Rochester of IBM, and Claude Shannon from Bell Telephone Laboratories, proposed a study of artificial intelligence to be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH. 14
Gazzaniga; Human 360 John Searle maintains that all conscious states are caused by lower-level brain processes; thus consciousness is an emergent phenomenon, a physical property -- the sum of the input from the entire body.  Consciousness does not just arise from banter back and forth in the brain. Consciousness is not the result of computation.  You have to have a body, and the physiology of the body and its input, to create a mind that thinks and has the intelligence of the human mind. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 360 Bayesian logic, which determined the likeliness of a future event based on similar events in the past. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 360 Markoff models, which evaluate the chance that a specific sequence of events will happen and are used in some voice-recognition software. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 362 Turing Test proposed in 1950 by Alan Turing. 2
Gazzaniga; Human 363 Neuroscientist Vernon Mountcastle -- neocortex is remarkably similar throughout, and therefore all regions of the cortex must be performing the same job. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 364 Brain uses the same mechanism to process all information. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 365 All of the sensory information is arriving in the form of spatial and temporal patterns. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 365 Spatial position of the receptive cells in the cochlea. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 365 Every image that we perceive, the eye jumps three times a second to fixate on different points -- movements known as saccades. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 Each pyramidal neuron may have up to 10,000 synapses. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 366 Neocortex is divided into regions that process different information. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 Brain treats information in a hierarchical manner. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 Hierarchy of information processing is a hierarchy of connectivity. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 Hierarchical region at the bottom of the hierarchy is the biggest and receives lots of sensory information. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 At the bottom of the hierarchy for visual processing, each neuron in V1 specializes in a tiny patch of an image. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 Area V2, the next region up in the visual hierarchy, starts putting the information from V1 together. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 From visual area V4, the information goes to the inferotemporal (IT) cortex, specializing an entire objects. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 366 When a human is shown a picture and asked to identify an object, it takes about half a second or less. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Neurons are much slower than a computer.  In a half second, information entering the brain can traverse a chain of approximately 100 neurons. 1
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Brain doesn't compute answers to problems; it retrieves the answers from memory.   [Perceptual categorization; Bayesian inference] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Entire cortex is a memory system. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Neocortex stores sequences of patterns. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Neocortex recalls patterns autoassociatively, which means it can recall a complete pattern when given only a partial one.   [Gestalt laws] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Neocortex stores patterns in invariant form. It can handle variations in a pattern automatically.  [ a priori estimate, Bayesian inference] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Neocortex stores memory in a hierarchy. 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Brain uses its stored memory to make predictions constantly.  When you enter your house, your brain is making predictions from past experience:   where the door is, where the door handle is, where the light switch is, which furniture is where, etc.  [Bayesian inference] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 367 Prediction is the primary function of the neocortex and the foundation of intelligence.   [Bayesian inference] 0
Gazzaniga; Human 389 Mirror neuron system seemed to be into everything, providing us with imitative abilities that may be the basis of all social abilities. 22