Allan Hobson; Consciousness
Book Page   Topic    
Hobson; Consciousness 16 Primary components of consciousness    are those experienced by all mammals,    including human infants:    sensation,    perception,    attention,    emotion,    instinct,    movement.
Hobson; Consciousness 16 Building blocks of consciousness (table) 0
Hobson; Consciousness 17 Secondary components of consciousness    are those experienced only by adult humans --    memory,    thought,    language,    intention,    orientation,    volition. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 17 Consciousness    is graded across species    as they develop over evolutionary time    (phylogenesis). 0
Hobson; Consciousness 17 Consciousness    is graded within species    over each individual's lifetime    (ontogenesis). 0
Hobson; Consciousness 17 Consciousness    is modulated in everyone    over the course of each 24-hour day. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 19 Roger Penrose -- subcellular elements, microtubules, tiny capillaries within nerve cells that serve as an internal circulatory system for proteins. [contentious theory] 2
Hobson; Consciousness 19 The spontaneous tendency of complex systems    to change state from chaos    to self-organization    is relevant to our understanding of dream consciousness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 42 Associative nature of human thought.   Ideas are interconnected and sequential.  [Gestalts] 23
Hobson; Consciousness 42 Even simple and completely nonconscious brains learn associatively.    Pair one stimulus with another    in space or time,    and the lowliest creature will learn the association. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 42 Dreaming    serves to loosen associations    lest they become obsessively tight.     Francis Crick theorized that we dream in order to forget. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 44 Essential chemical ingredient of associative learning in sea slugs is serotonin,    a neurotransmitter molecule humans need to stay awake,    attentive,    and teachable. 2
Hobson; Consciousness 45 Serotonin    may serve to restrain cerebral chaos    and may be a global organizer of the brain,    assuring consistency and stability of conscious state during waking. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 45 All complex systems with chaotic properties    can self-organize. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 45 Self-organization    is more likely to be achieved in undirected states,    such as meditation,    fantasy,    or reverie,    that border on waking. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 45 Dreaming    may be our most creative conscious state,    one in which the chaotic,    spontaneous recombination    of cognitive elements    produces novel configurations of information --    new ideas. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 47 Neuromodulatory neurons of the brainstem - (diagram) 2
Hobson; Consciousness 58 Cortex lobes - (diagram) 11
Hobson; Consciousness 59 Sleep-dream-wake cycle    is triggered and tuned by neuronal circuits in the pons. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 59 Key brain structure involved in attention is the thalamus,   a large collection of cells    located atop the brainstem    in the center of the upper brain. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 60 Hypothalamus    contains the biological clock    that times the body's cycles of rest and activity     and gates the sleep-wake cycle in the pons. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 61 Brain structures of emotion    lie below the thalamus and cortex    and above the spinal cord and brainstem.    Taken together, the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus have been called the limbic lobe of the brain 1
Hobson; Consciousness 62 Intimate relationship between the hippocampus, which is essential to memory, and the structures mediating emotion. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 62 Mental faculty of orientation cannot properly be considered apart from memory.     Knowing who one is,    what day it is,    and where one is. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 62 Distinguish (1) the cognitive kind of orientation    (which provides an organizing set of parameters for the rest of cognition)    and (2) the instinctive or reflexive orienting behavior    that is our immediate response (startle reflex) to a novel or surprising stimulus  that suddenly seizes our attention. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 63 Distinction between    older brain structures like the upper pontine brainstem,    with its direct connections to the amygdala that mediates startle responses,    and the newer midbrain-limbic circuits    linking the mammillary bodies to the hippocampus,    which underlie accurate orienting in space. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 63 Association cortex -- (diagram) 0
Hobson; Consciousness 64 Although we are largely unaware of it, our brains are full of implicit information about space. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 67 Level of any conscious state in the brain    rises and falls    in response to the electrochemical activation    supplied by the reticular formation in the brainstem. 3
Hobson; Consciousness 67 For the brain to be conscious,    its nerve cells must maintain a certain level of electrochemical activity. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 67 Overall brain activation level    changes as little as 10 percent  (or at most 20 percent),    between waking and sleep. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 68 Consciousness operates within a very narrow range of activation.    Consciousness is exquisitely sensitive    to even slight changes in activation level. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 68 A significant amount of information processing    occurs even when we are completely unaware of it    as we sleep. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 68 Spontaneously high level of activation during sleeping and dreaming;    such processing is not only automatic but potentially self-organizing and autocreative. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 68 Reticular formation works on the conscious mind    not only by changing the level of activation    but also by modulating the neural inputs and outputs. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 69 Reticular formation,    like a pair of sausages,    occupies the central core on each side of the brainstem    as it ascends from the medulla    upward through the pons and midbrain    to the hypothalamus. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 69 Reticular formation    begins in the medulla,    just above the level of the spinal cord. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 69 A particularly cogent example of the function of the reticular formation    is the coordination of eye position,    which involves visual processing centers of the upper brain and spinal circuits mediating head and body position. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 69 Medulla programs many autonomic functions    essential to consciousness    as well as organizing posture    and controlling head and neck position.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 70 Pons and midbrain are the very center of the reticular system    because they so clearly coordinate activation of the higher brain structures.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 1
Hobson; Consciousness 70 Neural rhythms -- Synchrony 0
Hobson; Consciousness 70 When the activation level of the brainstem falls, even a little,    the thalamocortical circuits begin to oscillate.    This kind of synchrony contributes to the global loss of consciousness    that occurs in NREM sleep. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 71 Oscillations of the thalamocortical circuits that occur at sleep onset    are robust and so highly synchronous    that they cause the characteristic EEG pattern of slow wave sleep. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 71 Visual thalamus    may be triggered automatically in REM sleep,    accounting in part for the detail of dream consciousness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 72 Neural oscillations unify    the brain's disparate components. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 72 Reticular formation emerges as the coordinator, internal communicator, and unifier of activity in the modular brain. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 73 Consciousness is determined by the neurochemical modulatory systems of the brainstem core. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 73 Neurochemical modulatory systems confer a second kind of unity on the brain, a metabolic one, which complements electrical synchrony and activation. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 73 Two main classes of modulatory neurons: (1) aminergic and (2) cholinergic systems. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 74 Cholinergic neurons are active in REM sleep. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 74 Two forms of consciousness: (1) waking and (2) dreaming. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 74 Memories are ultimately encoded as proteins in the synapses. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 74 In waking, the whole brain is primed to capture data. In sleep, the data might be differentially processed. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 74 Multiplicity of neuromodulatory subsystems: aminergic (waking) side, at least four different systems. (1) locus coeruleus-based noradrenergic system; (2) raphe nuclei-based serotonergic system; (3) midbrain-based dopaminergic system; (4) hypothalamus-based histaminergic system. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 74 During waking, all the neurons of the noradrenergic, serotonergic, and histaminergic systems fire slowly and regularly. All of them fire more slowly in NREM sleep. All of them stop firing in REM sleep. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 75 Modulatory systems in the brain: (1) Noradrenergic, (2) Serotonergic, (3) Dopaminergic, (4) Cholinergic  -  (diagram) 1
Hobson; Consciousness 81 Process by which complex functions arise when simple elements interact is called emergentism. 6
Hobson; Consciousness 82 Rapid reaction times in critical situations, like automobile operation, may be life-saving. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 82 We may learn in an entirely unconscious way, but because we can think abstractly, we can analyze our personal histories together with the social context and thereby make deliberate choices. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 82 The resulting outcomes of our choices can depend on entirely automatic behavior. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 84 Primary consciousness comprises sensation, perception, emotion, learning, geographic orientation, instinct, primary intention; all of these can be operationally defined in lower animals. 2
Hobson; Consciousness 85 In a developmental and evolutionary sense, memory emerges out of learning. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 85 Learning may be completely unconscious. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 87 Priming is not just semantic, but also sensory, and often emotional. 2
Hobson; Consciousness 87 Neuronal networks are associatively connected and sequentially activated by one another. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 88 Even the simplest animals evince associative learning. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 88 Associative learning -- building block of memory, of priming, and of word search must be a mechanism shared by neuronal networks at all levels of phylogeny (evolution of species) and ontogeny (individual development). 0
Hobson; Consciousness 89 Comparing conscious components in animals - (table) 1
Hobson; Consciousness 89 Animal "mind" is that set of brain functions that guides behavior so that innate, fully automatic, genetically determined states (like hunger, fear and sexual arousal) can be contextualized (integrated with ecological niches) by the individual. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 89 Learning is the primary-level basis of memory; Purposefulness is the primary-level basis of volition. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 90 Snails and worms have neuronal nets consisting of excitatory and inhibitory pathways that allow activation levels to be controlled so as to enhance one or another output function. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 90 Ganglia of invertebrates contain neuromodulatory elements whose chemicals subserve learning in the nets so that electrochemical activation levels and input-output biases accurately reflect experience. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 90 Invertebrate ganglia contain hormone-producing cells that, by secreting chemicals that induce sexual and other consummatory behaviors, provide instinctual guidance to the organism. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 91 If an invertebrate ganglionic neuron is to keep a record of its experience, the neurotransmitter serotonin must be released during its training-induced activation. No serotonin, no learning. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 91 Conscious state of waking, serotonin is released, we perceive and can remember. In the conscious state of sleep (REM), serotonin is not released, we can perceive but not remember. No serotonin, no memory. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 91 Spinal cord, much of the input-output processing and its modification by experience can occur at local segmental levels.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 91 Reflexive machinery of the arm, hand, and finger is at the upper, cervical level of the spinal cord.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 92 Reflex -- input becomes an output after passing through only one synapse. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 92 Consciousness is our instantaneous awareness of the act of copying information about the world, our bodies, and our selves into our brains, and the integration of those copies with all previous copies.  [Edelman's 'remembered present'] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 92 Self -- the resulting integration of perceptions, emotions, and memories. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 95 Young children are particularly vulnerable to dramatic shifts in temperature. Because their brain circuits are still developing, they are liable to develop seizures. 3
Hobson; Consciousness 95 Cognitive functions of orientation, memory, coherent speech, and stimulus-appropriate perception are replaced in delirium by disorientation, amnesia, confabulation, and hallucination. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 96 Vision is a symbolic process; no real pictures in the head, only neuronal patterns. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 97 Human infants are born with sensation, movement, instinct, emotion, and the ability to learn. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 98 Mother doesn't have to be conscious for her milk to flow in response to her baby's cry. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 99 Active sleep of the newborn infant is the primordial analog of adult REM sleep. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 99 Neonatal REM sleep periods, stereotyped activation of the brain, facilitating the development of the thalamocortical circuits necessary for consciousness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 99 Baby associating the pleasure of eating with mommy or daddy's smile, could gradually build up into a confident sense of self as their consciousness gradually emerges. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 99 Developmental psychologists postulate that consciousness emerges gradually during the second year of human life and culminates at about age 2 with the gaining of awareness of the self as an entity. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 99 Infant at age 7-8 mo learns to control movement voluntarily. Called "will" by developmental psychologists. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 99 Self arises when sensations associated with movement come to be taken as causes of the movement. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 100 Mature human thought and consciousness have both motoric and causal aspects. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 100 Recognition memory is evident at 8 months of age. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 100 Retrieval memory and inference allow a 14 month old to detect logical connection between past and present. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 100 Prefrontal cortex is the seat of working memory and strategically willed action. Five functions of self-aware, deliberate consciousness are integrated. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 100 REM sleep dreaming -- relative deactivation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with: (1) loss of volition, (2) weakening of working memory, (3) faulty inferential logic, (4) deterioration of self-reflective awareness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 101 Neural origin of primary consciousness, thalamocortical system of the forebrain. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 104 Tucson I and II, conference held in Tucson, AZ, 1994, 1996, "Toward a Science of Consciousness", wild heterogeneity of ideas from diverse sources. 3
Hobson; Consciousness 115 PET scanning (positron emission recorded by computerized tomography). 11
Hobson; Consciousness 115 Working memory neurons of the premotor cortex, receive dopamine and serotonin; Every cortical neuron involved in the representation of working memory is influenced by a variety of chemical modulators. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 117 Optimists are people who proceed to action despite risk. 2
Hobson; Consciousness 118 Stroke damage to left frontal lobe are much more likely to become depressed than damage to right forebrain. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 118 Our minds, like our bodies, are right- or left-handed. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 118 Highly hypnotizable subjects. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 124 Roger Penrose -- relevance of quantum theory to the understanding of consciousness. 6
Hobson; Consciousness 124 Stuart Hameroff -- understanding the mechanism by which general anesthetic agents ablate consciousness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 126 Microtubules in neurons - neurons contain circulatory system, proteins can be transported from nucleus to axon terminal and back again; protein transport mechanisms are quite slow, as long as 24 hours. 2
Hobson; Consciousness 126 Microtubules may alter neuron excitability significantly, deliver enzymes that can manufacture or degrade neurotransmitters. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 131 Comparison of the modules of consciousness during Waking, Sleeping, Dreaming - (table) 5
Hobson; Consciousness 132 Electron isolation in the hydrophobic pockets of proteins in microtubules - Stuart Hameroff hypothesizes to be the basis of anesthetic unconsciousness. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 134 Dream emotions - fear, anxiety, surprise, elation levels; much more consistently enhanced in dreams than in waking. 2
Hobson; Consciousness 134 Dream fear reaches such nightmarish intensity as to demand a terrified escape reaction strong enough to interrupt our slumber, breaking through the motor inhibition of REM sleep. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 134 Know so little how the brain constructs narrative. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 135 Normal waking conscious state; aware of where we are, the date and approximate time, who is present in our surroundings, goal or direction of our behavior. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 135 Orientational instability during dream consciousness is at the root of dream bizarreness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 135 Dream disorientation, blockade of external sensory signals, deprives the brain of time, place and person cues that constantly update waking consciousness and maintain orientation. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 135 Waking consciousness; we know, but we also know that we know. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 135 Dream consciousness, almost always wrong about itself. In dreams, we mistakenly assume that we are awake. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 136 We always correctly assume it is we and not someone else who is having our dream consciousness. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 136 Directed thought of waking consciousness; manipulate ideas, solve problems, examine the logic of propositions, analyze the accuracy of observations and assumptions. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 136 In dreams we are cognitively adrift; no mooring to time, place, or person, no self-awareness, no critical thought. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 137 Chemicals responsible for the evanescent neurotransmission of stimulus signals is different from those responsible for the more permanent storage of mnemonic records - Neuromodulators 1
Hobson; Consciousness 137 Among the neuromodulators crucial to memory:  (1) norepinephrine (2) serotonin; both are conspicuously diminished during dream consciousness. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 140 Waking depends upon the active suppression of tendency of thalamocortical circuits to go into their oscillatory mode. 3
Hobson; Consciousness 140 Thalamus is the final internal gateway for external information entering the cortex. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 140 External information fails to enter consciousness when the thalamocortical system is deactivated. Strength of thalamocortical oscillatory circuits swamp those representing the outside world via the sensory pathways. 0
Hobson; Consciousness 141 Thalamocortical system - In its activated state, information is rapidly and efficiently processed. Information can be either online data from the real world or data about the real world that are stored in the brain. 1
Hobson; Consciousness 141 The world, the self, and the body are re-represented in the network activation of the thalamocortical system.  [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 141 Consciousness is the images (and thoughts and feelings) that are represented in the activated neural networks. Where does it all come together? Nowhere and everywhere, simultaneously and always.  [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 141 Consciousness at any instant is simply the integrated product of the information represented in the activated thalamocortical networks at that instant. That includes sense of self; awareness of body; and awareness of the world, be it real or fictive.  [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 141 Can define consciousness at any instant as the information that is then represented in the working memory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).  [Edelman's dynamic core]  [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 141 Information of consciousness implicitly reflects my past in its representation of me as the agent of my motoric actions (volition), includes my reflective sense of strategy for those actions (thought), and their motivational appropriateness (emotional context).   [Edelman's dynamic core]  [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 141 Are all three components of consciousness (volition, reflection, emotion) simultaneously present in working memory, or does working memory multiplex its inputs so rapidly as to create a semblance of wholeness? Don't know the answer yet.   [Edelman's dynamic core]  [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 0
Hobson; Consciousness 142 Hypothesis: Consciousness is both continuous (in the overall direction of its flow) and discontinuous (in its sampling of the myriad eddy currents of the multifarious inputs). 1
Hobson; Consciousness 209 Manic depressive illness -- Vincent van Gogh. 67