Allan Hobson; Dreaming: An Introduction to the Science of Sleep
Book Page   Topic    
Hobson; Dreaming 19 Freud was an avowed atheist -- his rejection of religion was practically phobic.
Hobson; Dreaming 26 Physiological basis for the differences between waking and sleeping consciousness. -  (table) 7
Hobson; Dreaming 30 Dreaming brain is capable of simulating acts of movement (motor acts) extremely convincingly. 4
Hobson; Dreaming 42 1953 discovery of REM sleep. 12
Hobson; Dreaming 47 Universal characteristics that REM sleep evinces are intense frequent hallucinations. 5
Hobson; Dreaming 55 Hard problem' of philosophy -- how the brain can have subjective experience. 8
Hobson; Dreaming 56 REM sleep correspondence across species.  All but the most primitive mammals have periodic brain activation during sleep. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 56 REM facilitates the consolidation and advancement of procedural learning. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 58 Procedural learning is the acquired ability to do things when consciousness may not be involved. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 58 REM sleep is organized by the brain stem, including the reticular formation. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 58 Active suppression of muscle tone invariably accompanies REM sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 58 Brain can be active in sleep    without producing waking behavior    because the motor system is actively blocked    at the level of the spinal cord. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 60 Very low level parts of the brain stem    generate motor patterns.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 2
Hobson; Dreaming 60 Paroxysmal (PGO) waves    arise in different areas of the brain --    the pons of the brain stem reticular formation,    the geniculate body of the thalamus,    and the occipital cortex    during REM sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 60 Visual brain    stimulates itself    during REM sleep  - (diagram) 0
Hobson; Dreaming 60 PGO waves    originating in the pons    from neurons that move the eyes.    These signals are conducted both to the lateral geniculate body in the thalamus    and to the occipital cortex. (diagram) 0
Hobson; Dreaming 62 Neuromodulation    is a special kind of chemical neurotransmission    by which the brain is able to change its state globally. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 63 Dramatic change in neuromodulation    distinguishes REM sleep from waking. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 63 Brain-stem cells containing the neuromodulators norepinephrine and serotonin    change their outputs    when animals go to sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 63 Serotonin and noradrenaline cells    that modulate the brain during waking    reduce their output by half during non-REM sleep    and shut off completely during REM sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 63 Serotonin and noradrenaline    implicated in awake state functions    (attention,    memory,    reflective thought)    that are lost in dreaming. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 63 Neuromodulatory neurons:    (1) relatively few and relatively small,    (2) highly localized to a few brain stem nuclei,    (3) they are pacemaker cells;    rhythmical and spontaneous,    (4) fire at relatively low rates,    metronome-like,    (5) project their fine, multiply branching processes    all over the brain    and spinal cord. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 64 Neuromodulatory cells of the brain stem (pons area)    project up to the thalamus and cortex    and down to the spinal cord. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 64 Brain self-activates in sleep;    it changes its chemical self-instructions. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 64 Minds are functional states of our brains;    mind is not a spirit;    it is not an independent entity. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 64 Waking and dreaming    are two states of consciousness,    with differences that depend on chemistry. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 67 All the drugs that are used to treat psychoses have a role on the neuromodulators. 3
Hobson; Dreaming 67 Chemicals shift the balance    of the brain    to be awake or dreaming. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 68 Scientists think that all dreams    are chemically mediated. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 69 REM sleep dreaming    is mediated by acetylcholine    when noradrenaline and serotonin are at very low levels. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 69 Learning and memory hypothesis --    brain can trigger memory fragments with acetylcholine    but cannot make new ones without noradrenaline and serotonin. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 71 REM sleep    is important to mammalian biology;    it is highly conserved across species. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 72 New human newborn infant    offers one of the best opportunities    to observe REM behavior directly. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 72 In newborn infants,    REM occurs at sleep onset. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 72 Babies show pleasure, fear, surprise, and disgust    in the facial expressions    of REM sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 72 Human fetuses at 30 weeks gestation    show highly organized and spontaneous movement,    including eyes, face and limbs. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 72 Fictitious movement - the sense of moving    in dream space -    has been suggested by neurophysiologist Rodolfo Llinás    as a contributor to self-hood or consciousness. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 74 The only dimension of orientation    that is secure in dreaming    is a sense of self --    I myself am always at the center of the vortex    that is my dream. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 76 Human fetus at 30 weeks gestation    is spending almost 24 hours each day    in a brain activated state    that constitutes the first level of REM sleep. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 76 At birth,    REM sleep occupies at least half    of not less than 16 hours    of sleep each day. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 77 Brain stem    is the seat of the most primordial regulatory systems    (temperature,    cardiovascular,    respiratory, etc) 1
Hobson; Dreaming 77 Cholinergic system of the brain stem,    mediator of internal bodily activation,    develops earlier than the serotoninergic    and noradrenergic systems. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 77 Later development    of other chemical systems,    the aminergic systems    (histamine, dopamine),    shuts down infant sleep,    reducing it by 400 percent    from infancy to early adult life. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 79 Sleep length varies widely - (diagram) 2
Hobson; Dreaming 79 Early days of 1960s, discovery of REM sleep had prompted a storm of experimental enquiry. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 83 Sleep and dreaming science began at University of Chicago in early 1950s. 4
Hobson; Dreaming 85 Only mammals have REM sleep. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 85 Only in REM sleep that mammals cannot thermoregulate. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 86 REM sleep    is far more prevalent in newborn infants    than in adults, suggesting that construction of the brain itself is one of the functions of brain activation in sleep. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 87 We go through our lives needing to reconstruct our brains and minds. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 87 Level of emotional competence    has a high survival value    (flee,    fight,    feed,    fornicate). 0
Hobson; Dreaming 88 Dreaming includes intense emotion,    which is often negative    (anxiety, fear, anger). 1
Hobson; Dreaming 89 Arousal from NREM sleep,    intense activation of the heart,    breathing rate increases,    blood pressure rises. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 91 REM sleep,    one of the most common dream experiences    is imagined motion. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 91 Sleep walking,    sleep talking,    tooth grinding;    movement behaviors that occur unexpectedly during sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 92 High-voltage slow waves of deep sleep    continue while a person sleep walks. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 95 REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Enact their dreams; many later develop parkinsonism. 3
Hobson; Dreaming 96 Prolonged use of the antidepressants (SSRIs)    can lead to RBD. Parkinsonism, dopamine deficiency.  1
Hobson; Dreaming 96 Serotonin, a potent inhibitor of REM.  0
Hobson; Dreaming 97 Dreaming is a psychotic state. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 98 Dreaming and severe mental illness    are not only analogous but identical. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 98 Psychosis    is, by definition, a mental state characterized by hallucinations and/or delusions. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 98 Normal suspicion leads us to believe things about our lovers, colleagues, and governments that are either untrue or highly exaggerated. We don't need to hear voices to be paranoid. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 99 Which natural class of psychosis is dreaming most like?    (1) schizophrenia, (2) major affective disorder (such as depression and mania), or (3) an organic mental illness,    e.g. delirium resulting from drugs or a high fever? 1
Hobson; Dreaming 99 Dream hallucinations use sensory modality of vision. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 99 Visual hallucinations    are rare in schizophrenia;    they are the very hallmark of organic delirium. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 99 Delusions are exclusively cognitive/intellectual    and never paranoid as is typical of schizophrenia. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 99 The grandiosity and fearless elation of mania are shared with dream psychosis,    although these features are also found in organic delirium, especially in its chronic, post-intoxication phase. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 99 When we are dreaming,    times, places, and people change without warning.    This orientational instability is a variation on the organic delirium theme of disorientation. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 99 Delirious patients, similar to dreamers, know only who they are,    not where they are    or what day it is,    or even who is with them. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 101 Mental state is a constantly negotiated compromise between the poles of waking sanity and dreaming madness. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 103 Sleep loss is common in and contributes powerfully to the development of psychosis. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 103 Schizophrenia is thought to be a disorder of excessive dopamine release and/or heightened effectiveness of dopamine. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 103 In schizophrenia, we can hypothesize an indirect but positive interaction with other modulators of the awake state, noradrenaline and serotonin, and a direct negative interaction with acetylcholine. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 103 No distinctive changes in sleep are seen in chronic schizophrenia. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 110 Limbic forebrain, which is known to mediate emotion and to motivate behavior in humans. 7
Hobson; Dreaming 112 Diminished psychological function in dreaming shows an association with a lack of noradrenaline and serotonin in the REM sleep-activated brain -- these two chemicals are known to be necessary for attention, learning, and memory (and by implication for orientation and active reasoning). 2
Hobson; Dreaming 115 Strokes and epileptic seizures can cause decreases and increases in the formal features of dreams, respectively. 3
Hobson; Dreaming 115 Complete loss of dreaming can occur when there is damage to the multimodal sensory part of the parietal cortex, or to the deep frontal white matter of the brain. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 115 Cannot produce the psychological experience of dreaming without activating the parietal cortex or deep frontal white matter.  These areas constitute connections allowing other brain regions to communicate with one another in such a way as to sustain dream consciousness. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 115 When visual stimuli encoded by the retina reach the primary visual cortex, some simple properties of images (such as edges or bars) are represented but the complexity of the whole images are built up and represented elsewhere. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 115 More than 20 secondary or associative visual areas in the cortex. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 119 REM sleep subserves consolidation of memory. 4
Hobson; Dreaming 119 During REM sleep the brain is activated, and dreams are composed of memory fragments. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 120 Learning and memory reorganization take place without our ever being aware of it. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 121 Dreams are visual and intensely emotional. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 124 We can learn a myriad of procedures without being able to describe them verbally. Procedural memory. 3
Hobson; Dreaming 124 Performance correlates very strongly with deep early-night sleep (NREM), and with long late-night (REM) sleep. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 128 Declarative memory results from conscious awareness and associations, depends strongly on the hippocampus. 4
Hobson; Dreaming 130 Brain keeps a record of experience in the hippocampus, which is accessible for about a week by day but inaccessible at night. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 130 Brain uses sleep to make bit-by-bit adjustments in its long-term repertoire of learning and memory. 0
Hobson; Dreaming 131 Brain reworks memories into a much more general fabric of inclinations to act and feel in certain ways in response to certain stimulus conditions. 1
Hobson; Dreaming 134 Consciousness can be defined as our awareness of the world, our bodies, and ourselves. Consciousness is a brain function. 3
Hobson; Dreaming 134 Areas of the brain dealing with different components of consciousness. - (Table) 0
Hobson; Dreaming 136 Binding problem. 2
Hobson; Dreaming 136 Synchronicity of the many brain regions contributing information to consciousness is achieved via rhythmically harmonious activation of the many direct connections between the regions. 0
Hobson; Dreaming