Holland; Emergence
Holland; Hidden Order
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Holland; Emergence 85 Pulses throughout the CNS are pretty much the same size; amplitude carries little information beyond the presence or absence of a pulse.
Holland; Emergence 85 If enough pulses arrive at the surface of a neuron during a short interval of tiime,    the neuron fires,    propagating a new pulse down its own axon. 0
Holland; Emergence 85 The time it takes    the body of a neuron    to integrate incoming information    is long compared with the time it takes    a pulse to propagate between neurons.    This time for processing of input information by each neuron    sets the rate    at which a network of neurons can function. 0
Holland; Emergence 85 The efficiency of neurotransmitter pulses in a synapse    depends on the past history of pulses crossing the synapse.    An unrelated metaphor - exercise can improve muscle efficiency;    disuse can decrease it.    Can think of synapses as weighted according to past experience. 0
Holland; Emergence 86 Model the CNS:  -  Activity of the CNS is described by which neurons are firing during a given time step. Uniformity of pulses; each pulse is either 'on' or 'off.' 1
Holland; Hidden Order 4 At the Sante Fe Institute we refer to these complex adaptive systems as (CAS).
Holland; Hidden Order 5 Behavior of a whole CAS is more than the simple sum of the behaviors of its parts;    CAS abound in nonlinearities. 1
Holland; Hidden Order 6 CAS are made up of large numbers of active elements. 1
Holland; Hidden Order 9 Adaptive changes in individual neurons in the nervous system take from seconds to hours. 3
Holland; Hidden Order 33 The brain fashions an internal model of the external world as a basis for prediction and exploration of alternatives. (e.g., mental exploration of possible move sequences in chess) 24
Holland; Hidden Order 69 Krebs Cycle: -  natural molecular building block developed early in evolutionary history,    used by a wide range of species;    a basic eight-step metabolic cycle,     common to almost all cells that use oxygen,     ranging from aerobic bacteria to humans. 36