Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision
Book Page   Topic    
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 6 Purkinje cell presents an extreme in neuronal specialization; dendritic arborization is not bushlike in shape but is flat; through the hole-like spaces in this arborization pass millions of tiny axons running perpendicular; (2) pyramidal cell, (3) stellate cell (diagram)
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 7 Signals in a nerve begin at a point on an axon close to where it joins the cell body; they travel along the axon away from the cell body finally invading the terminal branches. 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 8 Visual pathway (diagram) 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 13 Prominent neurophysiologists who have researched how neurons and synapses work -- Andrew Huxley, Alan Hodgkin, Bernard Katz, John Eccles, and Stephen Kuffler. 5
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 24 Many parts of the central nervous system are organized in successive plate-like stages.(diagram) 11
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 27 The initial stages of the mammalian visual system have the plate-like organization often found in the Central Nervous System. The first three stages are housed in the retina; the remainder are in the brain: in the lateral genetic geniculate bodies and the stages beyond in the cortex.(diagram) 3
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 29 Each eye has its position controlled by six separate muscles. 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 37 Three retinal layers: Light has to pass through the ganglion cells and bipolar cell layers before it gets to the rods and cones.(diagram) 8
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 37 Retina; rods, cones, ganglion cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells - (diagram) 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 38 Cross-section of the retina. (diagram) 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 38 Retina - (enlarged diagram) 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 52 Center-surround receptive fields - (diagram) 14
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 59 Topographic representation in the primary visual cortex. 7
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 59 Optic nerve fibers make synapses with cells in the lateral geniculate body. Axons of the lateral genetic cells terminate in the primary visual cortex. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 60 Visual pathway from highest to primary visual cortex. (Diagram) 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 60 Visual Pathway diagram - (diagram) 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 62 Fibers coming to the brain from each eye pass uninterrupted through the optic chiasm (chi, the Greek letter whose shape is a cross) 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 62 Lateral geniculate bodies contain only one synaptic stage. They receive fibers not only from the optic nerves but also back from the cerebral cortex, to which they project, and from the brainstem reticular formation, which plays some role in attention and arousal. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 62 Some geniculate cells with axons less than a millimeter long do not leave the geniculate but synapse locally on other geniculate cells. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 64 No one knows why the right half of the world tends to project to the left half of the cerebral hemispheres. 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 64 Hemispheres of the cerebellum get input largely from the same, not the opposite, half of the world. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 65 Lateral genetic body is composed of six layers of cells stacked one on the other. Each layer is made up of cells piled four to ten or more deep. (photo) 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 65 Lateral geniculate body, six cell layers - (diagram) 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 68 Primary visual, or striate, cortex is a plate of cells 2 mm thick with a surface area of a few square inches. 3
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 68 Compared with the geniculate, which has 1.5 million cells, the striate cortex contains something like 200 million cells. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 68 Flow of information in the cortex takes place over several loosely defined stages. At the first stage, most cells respond like geniculate cells. Their receptive fields have circular symmetry, which means that a line or edge produces the same response regardless of how it is oriented. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 78 Movement-sensitive cells. 10
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 79 In visual exploration, our eyes jump around from one point of interest to another; we cannot explore a stationary scene by swinging our eyes passed it in continuous movements. 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 81 Process of making visual saccades to items of interest, in order to get their images on the fovea, is carried out largely by the superior colliculus. 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 81 Eyes do not hold perfectly still but make constant tiny movements called microsaccades, which occur several times per second and are more or less random in direction and about one to two minutes of arc and amplitude. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 85 Many structures in the brainstem that are primarily visual have to do only with the eye movements, pupillary constriction, or focusing by means of the lens. 4
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 85 Parts of the brain, such as the superior colliculus, may play a relatively more important part in a cat's perception than they do in the primates. Lower vertebrates, such as frogs and turtles, have nothing quite like our cortex. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 93 Primary visual, or striate, cortex is a far more complex and elaborate structure than either the lateral geniculate body or the retina. 8
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 93 Cerebral cortex, which almost entirely covers the cerebral hemispheres, has the general form of a plate who thickness is about 2 mm and whose surface area in humans is over 1 ft.. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 93 Primary visual cortex is distinguished by its layered or striped appearance in cross-section, hence his classical name, striate cortex. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 96 Cross-section through the occipital lobe. (diagram) 3
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 97 Cross-section of the striate cortex taken at higher magnification, cells arranged in layers. (diagram) 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 97 Layers of the visual cortex - (diagram) 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 99 Cortical layers, inputs and outputs (diagram) 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 99 Richest connections in the cortex run up and down, intimately linking the different layers. Diagonal and side-to-side connections generally run for 1 or 2 mm, although a few travel up to as much as 4 or 5 mm. 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 99 Axon connections between lateral geniculate body layers and striate cortex - (diagram) 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 101 Architecture of the cortex 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 104 Cell types found in the layers of the striate cortex - (diagram) 3
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 105 Ocular dominance columns 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 115 Orientation columns 10
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 116 Shift in orientation preference of neighboring cells. 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 123 Maps of the cortex 7
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 130 Units of function in the cortex 7
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 131 Cortex module -- to mm by 2 mm piece of cortex. 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 133 Layers in the retina are far from constant in thickness. Ganglion cell layer near the fovea is many cell bodies thick, perhaps eight or 10, whereas far in the periphery, say 70 to 80 out, there are too few ganglion cells to make one layer. 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 137 Corpus callosum 4
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 139 Corpus callosum (diagram) 2
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 140 Physiology of the corpus callosum 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 141 Corpus callosum, both eyes optics tracts to cortex, chiasm, lateral geniculate, cortex. (Diagram) 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 144 Every callosally connected cell in the visual cortex must get its input from cells in the opposite hemisphere with exactly matching properties. 3
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 145 Stereopsis -- judging depth by comparing images on our two retinas. 1
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 159 Color vision 14
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 163 Retinal receptors form a mosaic consisting of rods and the three types of cones; red, blue, green. (diagram) 4
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 168 Theories of color vision 5
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 172 Color blindness 4
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 191 Deprivation and development 19
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 191 Visual development 0
Hubel: Eye, Brain, and Vision 204 Amblyopia -- nonparallel eyes, cross eye or walleye. 13