Bruce McEwen; Cerebrum 2007 - Emerging Ideas in Brain Science
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Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 169 Hardwired for Happiness
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 171 Enemies of happiness, such as stress, depression, anxiety, and phobias. 2
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 171 Key neurotransmitters in the mechanisms of emotion in the brain and body. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 171 Deeper understanding of the biological components of happiness, and to practical applications for achieving it such as antidepressant drugs. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 172 Our most basic negative emotional processes, such as fear, stress, anxiety, anger, and aggression and how they relate to the brain, nervous system, hormones, and an internal organs. 1
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 172 Neural correlates of an emotion, particularly the subcortical structures such as limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia, and midbrain. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 172 Unhappiness was considered to arrive on its own, since fear, anger, and defense are responses to danger from the external world and are vital for our survival ("fight or flight"). 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 172 Feelings of pleasure and happiness were thought to be largely cultural, guiding our behavior toward desirable situations. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 172 "pleasure centers of the brain", 1950s, James Olds and Peter Milner. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 172 Specific structures in the subcortical brain process motivational input; the nucleus accumbens is one of the most active. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 173 Stimulation of the nucleus accumbens in humans elicits smiling, laughter, pleasurable feelings, happiness, even euphoria. 1
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 173 Extensive mapping has proved the existence of a coherent "reward system" in the brain. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 173 When the cortex has received and processed a sensory stimulus indicating a reward, it sends a signal to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the midbrain.  The VTA then releases dopamine not only to the nucleus accumbens, but also into the septum, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex.  These regions are connected through the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 173 Dopamine is involved in functions ranging from motivation and reward to feeding and drug addiction. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 173 Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with positive emotions and feelings; it is essential for activation of the reward system because it sets in motion the neural circuits involved in motivation. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 173 Dopamine-driven reward system is best known for its association with addiction, in which it causes uncontrollable urges to engage in distructive behavior. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 174 Endorphins, a kind of internal morphine composed of a sequence of amino acids. 1
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 174 Receptors for endorphins, called opiate receptors, can be found in several parts of the brain. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 174 When released by the pituitary gland and by neurons in the hypothalamus, endorphins suppress pain. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 174 Pleasurable feelings that accompany actions such as eating chocolate, laughing, smiling, touching, meditating, singing, listening to good music, and even orgasm are partially attributed to the brain's release of endorphins. 0
Cardoso; Hardwired for Happiness 174 It is proposed that opiate receptors and endorphins provide a biomolecular basis for emotion. 0
Schiff; Comatose 185 Hope for "Comatose" Patients 11
Schiff; Comatose 188 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 3
Schiff; Comatose 190 States of Disordered Consciousness. 2
Schiff; Comatose 190 Immediate consequence of severe brain injury is the loss of consciousness that results in a coma, an "unarousable unresponsiveness." 0
Schiff; Comatose 190 Person in a coma does not respond to vigorous efforts to elicit a response of any kind -- sound, movement, eye-opening -- and shows no variation in behavior, simply a sleep-like state with eyes closed. 0
Schiff; Comatose 191 Coma, Persistent Vegetative State (PVS), Minimally Conscious State (MCS) -- (table) 1
Schiff; Comatose 191 Prognosis for someone in a coma very much depends on the person's age, the amount of structural damage, and whether there is evidence of direct injury to the brain stem. 0
Schiff; Comatose 191 Comatose state, if uncomplicated by other factors, is typically followed within 7 to 14 days by an indeterminate period during which an eyes-open, "wakeful" appearance alternates with an eyes-closed, "sleep" state. 0
Schiff; Comatose 191 Vegetative states demonstrate no evidence of awareness of self or response to their surroundings. 0
Schiff; Comatose 191 If a patient remains in a vegetative state for more than 30 days, he is deemed to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). 0
Schiff; Comatose 191 Prospects for recovery of consciousness become grim when the vegetative state becomes chronic or permanent, after three months in the case of anoxic injury, and a year following traumatic injuries. 0
Schiff; Comatose 192 Minimally conscious state (MCS) 1
Schiff; Comatose 192 Limited behavior exhibited by MCS patients can include basic verbalization, gestures, memory, attention, intention, and awareness of self and environment. 0
Schiff; Comatose 192 Emerging from MCS after he passed through an initial coma and a period in the vegetative state. 0
Schiff; Comatose 192 Progression from PVS to MCS may take months following a traumatic brain injury. 0
Schiff; Comatose 193 Rudolfo Llinas, M.D., Ph.D.. 1
Schiff; Comatose 196 Crucial importance of functional integration, functioning forebrain networks. 3
Schiff; Comatose 196 Differences in integration of functions, more than levels of restling brain activity, are what separate PVS from MCS. 0
Schiff; Comatose 196 Abnormally increased synchronization of populations of neurons as is seen in epilepsy, delicate balance of excitation and inhibition. 0
Schiff; Comatose 197 Patients with severe cognitive impairment could be limited, in part, by a lack of functional integration among imtact regions of their brains. 1
Schiff; Comatose 197 Deep brain stimulation has advanced the treatment of drug-resistant Parkinson's disease, sometimes dramatically. 0
Schiff; Comatose 197 Deep brain stimulation is being investigated to help patients with chronic pain, epilepsy, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 Deep brain stimulation to raise the functional level of MCS patients. 1
Schiff; Comatose 198 Patients in a vegetative state, including Terry Schiavo. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 Deep brain stimulation to regions of the central thalamus, an area with many connections to the cerebral cortex. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 In 50 PVS patients studied worldwide, deep brain stimulation evoked no evidence of sustained recovery of interactive awareness. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 Areas electrically stimulated in the PVS patients are part of the thalamus that are known to link a state of arousal with some aspects of moment-to-moment behavior. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 PVS patients initiate no behavior, follow no commands, and attempt no communication. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 MCS patients near the border line of emergence typically have changes in cognitive functioning that come and go over hours, days, weeks, or even longer. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 In MCS patients, deep brain stimulation of the central thalamus might improve integration to the damaged networks that underlie moment-to-moment behavior. 0
Schiff; Comatose 198 In contrast to MCS patients, functional and structural neural imaging studies demonstrate that the networks in patients with chronic PVS have been overwhelmingly damaged. 0
Schiff; Comatose 199 Society must reexamine its attitudes toward patients with severe brain injury. 1
Schiff; Comatose 199 Because the futility of any potential treatment was pivotal in justifying the right-to-die for PVS patients, many physicians remain nihilistic about potential interventions in these patients with severely impaired consciousness. 0
Schiff; Comatose 199 Rights of patients to refuse life-sustaining therapies. 0
Schiff; Comatose 199 Seminal 1976 Karen Quinlan case, the New Jersey Supreme Court allowed the removal of life-sustaining therapy because Quinlan was in a vegetative state without any possibility of return to a "cognitive sapient state." 0
Schiff; Comatose 200 Hopeless condition of chronic PVS patients, sense of nihilism is so pervasive. 1
Schiff; Comatose 200 Right to die and the right to appropriate medical care 0
Schiff; Comatose 202 Terry Schiavo case 2
Huron; Music Review 213 Review of Daniel Levitin; This is Your Brain on Music 11