Mlodinow - Subliminal
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Mlodinow; Subliminal 32 In the mechanisms of the mind, unconscious action enters largely into all its processes.
Mlodinow; Subliminal 33 The human mental system is a two-tier complex of conscious and unconscious. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 33 In the two-tier system of the human mind, it is the unconscious tier that is the more fundamental. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 33 The unconscious mind developed early in evolution, to deal with the basic necessities of function and survival,    sensing and safely responding    to the external world. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 33 The unconscious is the standard infrastructure of all vertebrate brains,    while the conscious can be considered an optional feature. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 33 While most nonhuman species of animals can and do survive with little or no capacity for conscious symbolic thought,    no animal can exist without an unconscious. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 33 According to one textbook on human physiology, the human sensory system sends the brain about 11 million bits of information in each second. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 34 Our sensory perception, our memory recall, our everyday decisions, judgments, and activities all seem effortless -- but that is only because the effort they demand is expended mainly in parts of the brain that function outside awareness. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 35 As a result of evolution, about a third of the brain is devoted to processing vision --    to interpreting color,    detecting edges and motion,    perceiving depth and distance,    deciding the identity of objects,    recognizing faces,    and many other tasks. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 38 Facial expressions are controlled in large part by our unconscious minds. 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 38 Expressions are a key way we communicate    and are difficult to suppress or fake,    which is why great actors are hard to find. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 38 No matter how strongly men are drawn to the female form,    or women to a man's physique,    we know of no part of the human brain dedicated to analyzing the nuances of bulging biceps or the curves of firm buttocks or breasts. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 38 There is a discrete part of the brain that is used to analyze faces.    It is called the fusiform face area. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 39 The brain devotes a lot more attention to faces    than do many other kinds of visual phenomena    because faces are more important. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 39 We are far better at detecting the distortion    on the face that is right side up    that on one that is flipped over. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 58 People strongly disagree    in their recollection of events.    That's why lawyers take notes when they are having important conversation. 19
Mlodinow; Subliminal 61 None of us can retain in memory the vast quantity of details we are confronted with at any moment in our lives. 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 61 Memory mistakes are all artifacts    of the techniques our minds employ    to fill in the inevitable gaps. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 61 The techniques our minds use to fill in the inevitable gaps    include relying on our expectations    and, more generally, on our belief systems    and our prior knowledge. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 61 When our expectations,    beliefs,    and prior knowledge    are at odds with the actual events,    our brains can be fooled. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 62 William James had become fascinated with psychics,    communication with the dead,    and other mystical activities    that other scientists considered pure quackery. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 62 Sigmund Freud understood the immense power of the subconscious,    but he thought that repression,    rather than a dynamic act of creation    on part of the subconscious,    was the reason for the gaps and inaccuracies in our memory. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 63 Human memory is subject to the distortion of memory reconstruction. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 63 Though our memory system is far from perfect, it is in most situations, exactly what evolution requires: it is good enough. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 63 In the evolutionary big picture, human memory is wonderfully efficient and accurate --    sufficient to have enabled our ancestors to generally recognize    the creatures they should avoid    and those should hunt down. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 63 The mind is continuously bombarded by quantity of data so vast that it cannot possibly handle it all -- roughly 11 million bits per second. As an evolutionary result, perfect recall has been traded for the ability to handle and process that staggering amount of information. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 64 We store in memory the general features of the faces we remember, and when we see someone we know, we identify the person by matching the face we're looking at to a face in our limited "catalog." 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 64 Linguists recognize two types of language structure --    surface structure    and deep structure. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 64 Surface structure refers to the specific way an idea is expressed,    such is the words used and their order. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 64 Deeper structure refers to the gist of the idea. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 64 Most of us avoid the problems of clutter    by retaining the gist    but freely discarding details. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 64 Although we can retain deep structure -- the meaning of what was said -- for long periods of time,    we can accurately remember surface structure -- the words in which it was said -- for just 8 to 10 seconds. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 65 Memory is based on your recollection of the gist of the list you saw    and not the actual list. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 66 How process of remembering can be said to be analogous to the way computers store images in highly compressed form. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 66 In computers, to save storage space, images are often highly "compressed," meaning that only certain key attributes of the original image are kept. When the image is viewed, the computer predicts, from the limited information in the compressed file, what the original image looked like. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 66 If we enlarge a computer image    and look closely at the details,    we see many errors --    where the software guessed wrong    and missing details were incorrectly filled in. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 66 Memories are reinforced by repeatedly being asked to relive the events being remembering. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 66 When we repeatedly re-create a memory,    we reinforce it each time,    so that in a way we are remembering the memory,    not the event. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 68 The evolution of both cultural and personal memories resembles the telephone game. At the end of the sequence, words bear little resemblance to what was said at the beginning. 2
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 An important trend in the evolution of a memory --    there isn't just memory loss,    there are also memory additions 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 As the original reading of a story fades into the past,    new memory data is fabricated. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 When anything appears incomprehensible, it is either omitted or explained by adding content. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 People seem to alter a strange story into a more understandable and familiar form. They provide the story with their own organization. Inaccuracy is the rule, and not the exception. The story is stripped of all its surprising, jerky and inconsequential form. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 The figurative smoothing out of memory    is strikingly similar to a literal smoothing out    that Gestalt psychologists in the 1920s    had noticed in studies of people's memory for geometric shapes. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 If you show someone a shape    that is irregular and jagged,    and quiz them about it later,    they'll recall the shape    as being far more regular and symmetrical    than it actually was. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 69 The process of fitting memories into a comfortable form    is an active process    that depends on a person's own prior knowledge and beliefs about the world,    the preformed tendencies and bias    that the person brings to the task of remembering. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 71 While the eye delivers a multitude of details,    our conscious mind    doesn't register most of them. 2
Mlodinow; Subliminal 74 We are not very good at noticing all remembering the details of scenes that occurred. 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 77 Our unconscious takes the incomplete data provided by our senses, fills in what's missing, and passes the perception to our conscious minds. 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 78 Conscious memory and perception accomplish their functions with a heavy reliance on the unconscious. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 92 Reproductive success in males    is generally determined by competing with other males    to mate with as many females as possible. 14
Mlodinow; Subliminal 105 The Social Unconscious 13
Mlodinow; Subliminal 126 Judging People by Their Covers 21
Mlodinow; Subliminal 145 Sorting People and Things 19
Mlodinow; Subliminal 161 In-Groups and Out-Groups 16
Mlodinow; Subliminal 164 Scientists call any group that people feel part of an "in-group,"    and any group that excludes them an "out-group." 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 176 Feelings 12
Mlodinow; Subliminal 180 William James was born in New York City in 1842 to an extremely wealthy man. 4
Mlodinow; Subliminal 180 William James's interests flitted    from subject to subject, landing for a while on art,    chemistry,    the military,    anatomy,    and medicine. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 180 Medicine was the only course of study William James completed,    receiving an MD degree from Harvard in 1869, at age 27. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 181 After graduating from Harvard,    William James became deeply depressed.    His diary from that time reveals little but misery and self-loathing. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 181 William James suffered from chronic depression for the rest of his life. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 196 Self 15
Mlodinow; Subliminal 199 Our self image    and the more objective image that others have of us    are not quite in sync. 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 199 By the time we are to calm him most of us have a sense of ourselves as social agents. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 199 Around the time we shed diapers, we begin to actively engage with adults to construct visions of our own past experiences. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 199 People's behavior    is motivated by    their desires and beliefs. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 Our ego    fights fiercely    to defend its honor. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 Normal and healthy individuals think of themselves as not just competent but proficient, even if they aren't. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 There are two ways to get at the truth --    the way of the scientists    and the way of the lawyer. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 Scientists    gather evidence,    look for regularities,    form theories explaining their observation,   and test them. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 Attorneys     begin with a conclusion    they want to convince others of    and then seek evidence to support it,    while also attempting to discredit evidence that doesn't. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 The human mind    is designed to be both a scientist and an attorney,    both a conscious seeker of objective truth    and an unconscious, impassioned advocate for what we want to believe. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 Together these "scientist" and "lawyer" approaches vie to create our worldview. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 200 Believing in what you desire to be true    and then seeking evidence to justify it    doesn't seem to be the best approach in everyday decisions. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 Often it is the irrational choice that would probably make you happier,    and the mind generally seems to opt for happy. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 The "causal arrow" in human thought processes    consistently tends to point from belief to evidence,    not vice versa. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 The brain is a decent scientist but an absolutely outstanding lawyer. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 In the struggle to fashion a coherent, convincing view of ourselves and the rest of the world, it is the impassioned advocate that usually wins over the truth seeker. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 The unconscious mind    is a master at using limited data    to construct a version of the world    that appears realistic and complete    to its partner, the conscious mind. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 Visual perception, memory, and even emotion are all constructs, made of a mix of raw, incomplete, and sometimes conflicting data. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 We use a creative process    to generate our self image.    When we paint our picture of self,    our attorney-like unconscious    blends facts and illusions,    exaggerating our strengths,    minimizing our weaknesses,    creating a virtual Picassoesque series of distortions    in which some parts have been blown up to enormous size    and others shrunk to near invisibility. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 The rational scientists of our conscious minds innocently admire the self-portrait, believing it to be the work of photographic accuracy 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 Psychologists call the approach taked by our inner advocate    "motivated reasoning." 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 Motivated reasoning    helps us to believe in our own goodness and competence,    to feel in control,    and to generally see ourselves in an overly positive light. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 201 Ambiguity creates wiggle room    in what may otherwise be inarguable truth, and our conscious minds employ that wiggle room to build a narrative of ourselves,   of others,    and of our environment    that makes the best of our fate,    that fuels us in the good times,    and gives us comfort in the bad. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 203 Our unconscious    can choose from an entire smorgasbord of interpretations    to feed our conscious mind.    In the end we feel we are chewing on the facts,    though we've actually been chomping on a preferred conclusion. 2
Mlodinow; Subliminal 205 It's not uncommon for scientists to operate as advocates    rather than impartial judges,    especially in the social sciences,    in which there is greater ambiguity than in the physical sciences. 2
Mlodinow; Subliminal 205 Scientists with an investment in established theory sometimes stubbornly cling to their old beliefs. Economist Paul Samuelson wrote, "science advances funeral by funeral." 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 205 Because motivated reasoning is unconscious,    people's claims that they are unaffected by bias or self-interest    can be sincere,    even as they make decisions that are in reality self-serving. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 205 Physicians think they are immune to monetary influence, yet studies show that accepting industry hospitality and gifts has a significant subliminal effect on patient care decisions. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 206 Brain imaging studies are beginning to shed light on how our brains create the unconscious biases. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 206 Brain imaging studies show that when assessing emotionally irrelevant data, our brains automatically include our wants and dreams and desires. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 206 Motivated reasoning involved a network of brain regions that are not associated with "cold" reasoning, including the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex -- parts of the limbic system -- and the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, which are also activated when one makes emotionally laden moral judgments. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 209 When someone with a political bias on vested interest sees a situation differently than we do, we tend to think the person is deliberately misinterpreting the obvious to justify their politics or to bring about some personal gain. 3
Mlodinow; Subliminal 209 Through motivated reasoning each side finds ways to justify its favored conclusion and discredit the other, while maintaining a belief in its own objectivity. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 210 Adjusting our standards for accepting evidence to favor our preferred conclusions is but one instrument in the subliminal mind's motivated reasoning toolkit. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 212 People who act in ways we abhor are usually convinced they are right. 2
Mlodinow; Subliminal 213 The subtlety of our reasoning mechanisms allows us to maintain our illusions of objectivity even while viewing the world through a biased lens. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 214 We perceive ourselves as forming judgments in a bottom-up fashion, using data to draw conclusions, while we are in reality deciding top-down, using our preferred conclusion to shape our analysis of the data. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 216 Accomplishments,    large and small, depend to some degree on    the accomplisher believing in him- or herself. 2
Mlodinow; Subliminal 216 The greatest accomplishments    most likely rely on a person's being    not only optimistic    but unreasonably optimistic. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 216 Belief in the self    is an ultimately positive force in life. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 216 Psychological literature is full of studies illustrating the benefits -- both personal and social -- holding positive "illusions" about ourselves. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 216 Those feeling good about themselves are more poor operative in bargaining situations and more likely to find a constructive solution to their complex. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 217 Those feeling good about themselves are better problem solvers, more motivated to succeed, and more likely to persist in the face of a challenge. 1
Mlodinow; Subliminal 217 Motivated reasoning and able to our minds to defend us against unhappiness, and in the process he gives us the strength to overcome the many obstacles in life that might otherwise overwhelm us. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 217 The more of motivated reasoning we do, the better off we tend to be, for it seems to inspire us to strive to become what we think we are. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 217 Studies show that people with the most accurate self-perceptions tend to be moderately depressed, suffer from low self-esteem, or both. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 217 An overly positive self evaluation    is normal and healthy. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal 217 Motivated reasoning and motivated remembering and all the other quirks of how we think about ourselves and our world may have their downsides, but when we are facing great challenges, the natural optimism of the human mind is one of our greatest gifts. 0
Mlodinow; Subliminal