Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech
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Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 9 Neural representation of spectral and temporal information speech
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 49 Basic auditory processes involved in the analysis of speech sounds 40
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 79 Acoustic and auditory phonetics: the adaptive design is speech sound systems 30
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 103 Early language acquisition: frenetic and word learning, neural substrates 24
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 133 Processing of audio-visual speech: empirical and neural bases 30
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 151 Listening to Speech in the Presence of Other Sounds 18
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 153 General properties such as the common onset and the harmonic relations between frequency components from a single source can help partition sounds from different sources that occur simultaneously. 2
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 153 Properties such as continuity of pitch, timber, overall level, and spatial location can help to track a single sound source across time. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 154 Simple low-level grouping heuristics that are generally of some help in sound segregation are inadequate for putting together into a single source, the very sound that make up the natural speech stream, as it rapidly switches between voiced, aspirated, and fricated sounds and silence. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 154 Sine-wave speech is synthesized by adding together three frequency modulated (FM) and closely amplitude modulated (AM) sine waves that follow the frequency and smoothed amplitudes of the first three formats (the resonant frequencies of the vocal track), producing the speech equivalent of a line drawing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 154 Since sine-wave speech speech lacks harmonic structure and the frequency movements of the three sine waves are largely uncorrelated, additional criteria for grouping them are required. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 154 Harmonicity and onset-time, which are used by the auditory system to segregate nonspeech sounds, are also helpful in the difficult task of separating simultaneous talkers. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 155 Cochlear implants, whose coding gives impoverished harmonic structure. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 155 Sine-wave speech, like a visual cartoon, probably makes its perceptual impact because it makes explicit perceptually useful abstractions of speech (i.e. format frequencies), which may be only implicit in the natural signal. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 155 Some grouping effects such as those involving onset time may actually be due to auditory coding mechanisms at the level of the cochlear nucleus. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 156 Resistance to distortion arises through speech being redundant at many levels and the perceptual system being adept at perceiving sound that is then filtered and masked by its environmental context. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 156 At the acoustic phonetic level, there are many sufficient acoustic cues to a phoneme but no necessary ones. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 156 There is no consensus about the form of the auditory information that is used to access the brain's acoustic phonetic knowledge in order to characterize the speech sounds that we hear. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 156 It seems likely that one of the functions of the early stages of auditory processing is to get the incoming sound mixture into a form where it can sensibly make contact with stored source-specific information. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 157 The problem of separating two talkers is very different from the problem of trying to listen to one talker against a background of steady noise. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 158 Much of speech is voiced, and normal voicing results in a quasi-periodic signal that shows considerable harmonic structure with a perceptible pitch corresponding to the fundamental frequency (F0). 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 159 When two harmonic sounds differ in F0 by a semi-tone, corresponding pairs of harmonics are too close together in frequency (about 6% separation) to be resolved by the cochlear. Since the two corresponding harmonics excite essentially the same region of the basilar membrane, its vibration reflects the physical addition of the sounds to give beats. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 160 Frequency components from a single sound often share a common onset time, and this property is used by listeners to group frequency components together in the perception of timbre, including vowel quality in steadt vowels and simple syllables. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 161 Different natural sound sources usually come from different directions in space. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 161 The way the brain uses directional cues and auditory grouping is not straightforward and reflects the problems that difficult listening environments provide for sound localization. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 161 For higher frequency components, the head casts an acoustical shadow which can benefit the era on the side of the speech. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 162 The different relative phases of the two ears of the low-frequency components of the speech and noise make the speech easier to detect. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 162 The dominant cue for localizing speech signals in the horizontal plane (azimuth) is the inter-aural time differences (ITDs) of the sound's low-frequency (<1.5 kHz) components. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 164 Speech can be remarkably well recognized by human listeners under a wide variety of distortions and against both random and structured noise backgrounds in anechoic and reverberant surroundings. 2
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 164 The brain uses a wide range of perceptual mechanisms to achieve a level of recognition. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 164 For random noise, the problem is mainly one of detection and also requires recognition mechanisms that can operate on the basis of partial information, tolerating missing data. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 164 For structured noise, such another talker, additional problems arise of allocating sensory fragments to one or other sound source and of tracking an individual sound source over time. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 165 A gap in our knowledge is in an understanding of the intermediate representations of sound between the sensory coding in the auditory nerve and the human brain's representation of phonetic knowledge. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 171 Functional imaging of the auditory processing applied to speech sounds 6
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 171 Speech is a linguistic signal used to communicate information and ideas, but it also contains nonlinguistic information about the size, sex, background, social status and emotional state of the speaker. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 171 Initial stages of auditory processing reliant on neural organization that is evolutionarily conserved among many primate species and applied to all communication sounds, not just a speech. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 171 The principal components of the subcortical auditory system extend from the ear canal to the upper surface of the central portion of the temporal lobe. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 171 Between the cochlear and the auditory cortex, there are four major centers of neural processing: (1) the cochlear nucleus, (2) the superior olivary complex, (3) inferior colliculus, (4) and the medial geniculate body of the thalamus. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 172 These nuclei perform transformations that are applied to all sounds as they proceed up the pathway, much as the cochlear performs a mandatory frequency analysis on all sounds entering the auditory system. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 172 Primary Auditory Cortex (PAC) 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 173 Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 173 At the level of the cortex, anatomical connectivity suggests that the auditory perception and vocal production may be quite intimately linked. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 Posterior Lateral Superior Temporal (PLST) 2
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 Heschl's gyrus (HG) 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 When the region of HG was electrically stimulated, it resulted in an evoked potential in PLST. The average onset latency for evoked response was only 2 ms, consistent with an ipsilateral corticocortical connection between HG and PLST. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 The PLST appears to make a functional connection with the IFG with onset latencies of approximately 10 ms, and cortical stimulation of posterior IFG elicits responses in orofacial motor cortex with onset latencies of approximately 6 ms. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 The results suggest that a sound in the environment could have an impact on neural activity in orofacial motor cortex within 35 ms of stimulus onset, and most of that time is spent in the pathway from the cochlear to PAC. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 The anatomy of the auditory cortex suggests that following the succession of nuclei in the subcortical pathway, the information in the auditory cortex radiates out in parallel paths from core areas and cascades into at least three spatially distributed sensor regions, comprising at least three further processing stages. Prominent feedback routes connect adjacent regions at all levels. Perceptual processes must depend on this anatomical organization. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 General auditory processes involved in speech perception. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 Trained on the speech of a man, recognition machines are notoriously bad at understanding the speech of a woman, let alone a child. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 175 The auditory system possesses mechanisms that automatically assess the vocal track length (VTL) and glottal pulse rate (GPR) of the speaker. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 In speech communication, processes are responsible for what is referred to as vowel normalization. This analysis helps to produce a size invariant representation of the temporal cues that identify a species. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 At the heart of the syllable of speech is a vowel. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 From an auditory perspective, a vowel is a pulse resonance sound that is a stream of glottal pulses each with a resonance showing how the vocal tract responded to that pulse. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 From the speech perspective, the vowel contains three important component of information 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 The phonological message for vowels is that the vocal track is currently in the shape that the brain associated with the phoneme. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 Since the vocal track connects the mouth and nose to the lungs, VTL is highly correlated with the height of the speaker. It is the shape of the resonance that corresponds to the message or content of the speech sound. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 176 The GPR, which corresponds to the pitch, and the resonance rate, which corresponds to the VTL, ar derived from the form of the message. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 177 The cochlear performs a spectral analysis of all incoming sounds. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 177 A transduction mechanism involving half wave rectification and low pass filtering converts each channel of the membrane motion into a simulation of the neural activity produced in auditory nerve at that point on the basilar membrane. The result is a multichannel neural activity pattern (NAP). 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 177 The channels cover the frequency range from 100 to 6000 Hz. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 177 The glottal pulses initiate activity in most of the channels every time they occur. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 177 The concentrations of energy and the mid-frequency region revealed the formats. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 177 The NAP of a vowel is a repeating pattern consisting of a warped vertical structure with triangular resonances on one side, which provide information about the shape of the vocal track. The pattern repeats at the GPR which is heard as the voice pitch. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 There is a hierarchy of processing in the auditory pathway. 4
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 The extraction of time interval information from the firing pattern in the auditory nerve probably occurs in the brain stem. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 Construction of the time-interval histograms probably occurs in or near the thalamus (MGB), and the resulting stabilized auditory image is in the primary auditory cortex. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 The cross channel evaluation of pitch value and pitch strength probably occurs in the Heschl's gyrus (HG). 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 Assessment of pitch variation for the perception of melody and perhaps prosody, appears to occur in regions beyond auditory cortex (anterior STG) particularly in the right hemisphere. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 It is the integration over long time periods that gives rise to the hemispheric asymmetry. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 Imaging the auditory system with MEG 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 MAG measures the strength and direction of the magnetic dipole produced by activation in the nerve fibers running parallel to the scalp; it is largely insensitive to radial sources. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 The main advantage of MAG or the investigation of arbitrary function is that it has millisecond temporal resolution, which can be used to investigate the order of events and auditory cortex. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 181 Recent MAG machines with hundreds of senses make it possible to localized sources sufficiently well to associate them with the regions of activation observed with fMRI. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 182 The notes of music and the vowels of speech produce sustained pitch perceptions. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 182 The advent of MEG systems with 125 250 sensors. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 183 Talker normalization is an important preliminary step to recovering the content of an utterance. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 183 Not until they transform auditory image reflecting the shape of the vocal apparatus has been achieved, and the linguistic content (phonemes/words/phrases) be analyzed and interpreted. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 183 Detailed information about an individual talker's voice is encoded and retained and can subsequently improve intelligibility of the familiar voice. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 183 Brain networks underlying both voice specific processing and the transformation from general auditory to speech-specific processing have been studied using imaging methods. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 183 The location of speech-specific processing for the transformation from auditory to linguistic processing has not been definitively defined. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 184 The processing of speech as a linguistic signal seems to recruit left hemisphere STS areas preferentially, whereas processing the speech of the voice signal seems to recruit right hemisphere STS areas preferentially. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 184 The transformation from an auditory signal to speech is localizable and is distributed across several neural loci. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 185 Researchers have observed activity in premotor cortex or motor cortex during the perception of speech. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 185 Acoustic-to-speech transformations reliant on multiple regions in a distributed network including both temporal lobe and motor-premotor regions. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 185 Anatomical connections between the auditory system and motor structures are highly compatible with a wealth of information attesting to the speech perception as a sensorimotor phenomenon. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 186 Access to gestural representations provides a shared code between speaker and listener, which is essential or speech communication. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 186 The incoming auditory signal is extensively processed and recoded by the time it reaches auditory cortex, and it probably is not treated in any speech-specific way until relatively late at least three or four cortical processing stages beyond PAC. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 186 Prior to the PAC stage, the processes are more about the form of the speech (how the talker was talking) and less about the content of the speech (what the talker was saying). 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 186 The mammalian auditory system is organized hierarchically, and from PAC onwards the anatomy suggests multiple, parallel, processing systems with strong feedback connections suggesting that multiple aspects of the speech signal of process more or less simultaneously. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 186 The fact that the processing is distributed means that the functional imaging (fMRI at MEG) can assist in exploring both the subcortical and cortical networks involved in domain general and speech specific processing and the interactions among them. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 193 Frontal-temporal brain systems supporting spoken language comprehension 7
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 195 Multiple parallel processing streams are involved, extending hierarchically outward from the auditory cortex in both posterior and anterior directions. 2
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 195 Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which examines the structure of white matter tracts. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 195 The most critical language functions depend on an intact left-dominant perisylvian core language system linking left inferior frontal cortex (LIFC) with temporal and posterior parietal cortices. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 198 We need to take the morphine, the minimal meaning bearing element in human language, as a basic building block. 3
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 198 We assume that lexical access processes involving mono morphemic content words the initial mapping of acoustic phonetic information in the speech signal onto the stored lexical representation of form and meaning are mediated by the brain regions in the superior and middle temporal lobes. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 198 These lexical access processes seem to be supported bilaterally, although there is undoubtedly some degree of left hemisphere dominance. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 198 Morphologically complex words involving regular and inflectional morphology require the temporal lobe access processes to interact with inferior frontal areas primarily by the so-called 'dorsal' route involving the arcuate fasciculus likely to be critical for morpho-phonological parsing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 198 The ventral route is likely to be active in more somatic aspects of language comprehension. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 200 Classical Broca-Wernicke model of language function where the arcuate fasciculus connects superior temporal and inferior frontal regions and in a neural language system. 2
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 203 Work with non-human primates shows that the anterior cingulate cortex projects to or receives connections from most regions of frontal cortex and from superior temporal cortex. 3
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 204 Activity of both frontal and temporal structures in the processing of morpho-phonologically complex words. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 205 Connectivity between inferior frontal and middle temporal regions are consistent with anatomical connectivity via the arcuate fasciculus between the frontal and temporal regions and between orbito-frontal and anterior temporal regions by ventral connections. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 206 Anterior temporal areas are typically associated with semantic processing. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 207 Language comprehension involves combining words into structured sequences through the processes of syntactic combination. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 216 Subsystems supporting three major aspects of spoken language comprehension, involving a regular inflectional morphology, sentence level syntactic analysis and sentence level semantic interpretation. 9
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 216 Core aspects of language processing are carried out in a fronto-temporal-parietal language system which is modulated in different ways as a function of different linguistic processing requirements. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 216 No one region or subregions holds the key to a specific language function; rather each requires the coactivation of activity within a number of different regions. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 216 Inflectional morphology and syntactic processes clearly grouped together in distinction from the third, semantic function. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 216 Robustness of the ability to construct a somatic interpretation from linguistic inputs, even in the face of massive disruption to core LH language areas. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 217 Spoken language comprehension involves a network of posterior and frontal regions, with posterior regions being especially important in syntactic processing. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 223 Fractionalization of spoken language understanding by measuring electrical and magnetic brain signals 6
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 223 When we hear speech, numerous brain areas work together to analyze the acoustic information, onto stored lexical knowledge, extract meaning of those words and integrate them into an ongoing sentential or discourse context. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 223 Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have given important new insight into the network of brain areas involved in language processing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 223 Diffusion tensor imaging has provided data about their connectivity of language related brain areas. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 223 None of these techniques has a temporal resolution of the order of milliseconds, which is necessary to study the time course of language processing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 224 Event related potential (ERP) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of about temporal and functional fractionation of the neurocognitive architecture for listening to language. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 224 ERPs reflect the sum of simultaneous postsynaptic activity of a large population of mostly pyramidal neurons recorded at the scalp as small voltage fluctuations in the electroencephalography (EEG) time locked to sensory, motor or cognitive processes. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 241 The crucial difference between reading and the processing of speech is the difference in the time at which word information is made available. In reading, words are essentially instantaneously available, whereas in speech the information accrues and her left-to-right order. 17
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 241 The different information types (lexical, syntactic, phonological, pragmatic) are processed in parallel and influence the interpretation process incrementally, i.e. as soon as the relevant pieces of information are available. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 241 There does not seem to be a separate stage during which word meaning is exclusively integrated at the sentence level. Incremental interpretation is, for the most part, done by an immediate mapping onto a discourse model. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 249 Speech perception at the interface of neurobiology and linguistics 8
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 249 Speech perception is in multi-time resolution process, with perceptual analysis occurring concurrently on at least two time scales (20 80 ms, 150 300 ms) commensurate with (sub)segmental and syllabic analyses, respectively. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 Speech perception is a multi-time resolution process with signal analysis occurring concurrently on two time scales relevant to speech, syllabic-level (approximate 5 Hz) and segmental-level (approximate 20 Hz) temporal analyses. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 Multiresolution processing is widely observed in other systems (e.g. vision) and can be used profitably to understand speech recognition. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 The analysis-by-synthesis method discussed here contrasts with bottom-up processing in perception by using hypothesizes and test methods based on 'guesses' (hypotheses) about possible targets and internally synthesizes these targets. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 The analysis is guided by internally synthesized candidate representations. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 The analysis-by-synthesis is conceptually related to Bayesian classification. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 A specific representation theory Distinctive features as the primitives for lexical representation and phonological computation. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 250 Words are represented in the mind/brain as a series of segments each of which is a bundle of distinctive features that indicate the articulatory configuration underlying the phonological segment. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 251 One of the central aspects of speech perception is the extraction of distinctive features from the signal. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 251 The fact that the elements of phonological organization can be interpreted as articulatory gestures with distinct acoustic consequences suggest a tight and efficient architectural organization of the speech system in which speech production and perception are intimately connected through the unifying concept of distinctive features. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 251 Multi-time resolution processing allows for a 'quick and coarse' sample of the input that can subsequently be refined by further analysis in a parallel stream. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 251 The objective is to try to link the acoustic information on multiple time scales to feature neural information. Once we have the featural hypotheses we can generate internal guesses that can guide further perceptual processing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 251 Guesses based on coarsely represented spectro-temporal representations constitute a way to ignite the analysis-by-synthesis algorithm that is particularly useful to rapidly recognize incoming speech based on predictions that are conditioned by both the prior speech context and higher order linguistic knowledge. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 Acoustic signals can be characterized by spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) of auditory cortical neurons. 3
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 The auditory-based representations enters into phonological and morphological operations (e.g., pluralization) as well as syntactic ones (subject-predicate agreement, etc.) 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 Three steps that are essential in the process of transforming signals to interpretable internal representations. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 (1) Multi-time resolution processing in the auditory cortex as a computational strategy to fractionate the signal into appropriate 'temporal primitives' commensurate with processing the auditory input concurrently on a segmental and syllabic scale. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 (2) Analysis-by-synthesis as a computational strategy linking top-down and bottom-up operations to auditory cortex. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 (3) Construction of abstract representations (distinctive features) that form the computational basis for both lexical representation and transforming between sensory and motor coordinates in speech processing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 The three attributes of speech representation (features) and processing (multitime resolution, analysis by synthesis) provide a way to think about how to explicitly link the acoustic signal to the internal abstractions that are words. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 254 Perception and recognition processes have a number of bottom-up and top-down steps. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 There is likely followed calculation of perceptual candidates based on very precisely guided synthesis steps. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 In a first pass, the system attempts a quick reduction (primal sketch) of the total search space for lexical access by finding somewhat coarsely specified landmarks. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 These initial guesses are based on minimal spectro-temporal information (i.e. two or three analysis windows) and can be stepwise refined in small time increments (approximately 30 ms or so) owing to the multi-time resolution nature of the process. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 Initial cortical analysis of speech occurs bilaterally in core and surrounding superior auditory areas. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 Subsequent computations (typically involving lexical level processing) are largely left lateralized (with the exception of the analysis of pitch change; the analysis of voice; and the analysis of syllable-length signals), encompassing the superior temporal gyrus, anterior and posterior aspects of the superior temporal sulcus, as well as inferior frontal, temporo-parietal and inferior temporal structures. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 Practically all classical, peri-Sylvian language areas are implicated in some aspects of the perception of speech. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 255 Imaging studies show very convincingly that the processing of speech at the initial stages is robustly bilateral. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Bilateral auditory cortex generate high-resolution neuronal representations of the input signal (which of course is already highly preprocessed in subcortical areas such as the inferior colliculus). 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Spectral versus temporal right-left assymmetry is a consequence of the size of the temporal integration windows of the neuronal ensembles in these areas. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Neuronal ensembles in left temporal cortex are associated with a somewhat shorter integration constants (20 50 ms) and therefore left hemisphere cortical fields preferentially reflect temporal properties of acoustic signals. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Right hemisphere cortex houses neuronal ensembles, a large proportion of which have longer (150 300 ms) integration windows and are better suited to analyze spectral change. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Primary auditory cortex builds high-fidelity representations of the signal, and surrounding non-primary areas differentially elaborate this signal by analyzing it on different time scales. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Beyond the initial analysis of sound that is robustly bilateral and may involve all of the acoustic to phonetic mapping, there is wide agreement that speech perception is lateralized. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 The analysis of prosodic features of speech has been suggested to be lateralized to the right superior temporal gyrus. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 The processing of speech per se, i.e. that aspect of processing that permits lexical access and further speech-based computation, is lateralized to left temporal, parietal and frontal cortices. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 Beginning in the superior temporal gyrus, there may be two processing streams, similar to the 'what' and 'where' pathways for vision. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 256 In the auditory domain, one can think of a 'what' (ventral) pathway (the pathway responsible for the 'sound-to-meaning mapping') that involves various aspects of the temporal lobe that are apparently dedicated to sound identification. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 Range of areas implicated in speech processing go well beyond the classical language areas typically mentioned for speech; the vast majority of textbooks still state that this aspect of perception in language processing occurs in Wernicke's area (posterior third of the superior temporal gyrus). 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 In analogy to the visual what/where distinction, evidence from auditory anatomy and neurophysiology as well as in the imaging suggests that there is a dorsal pathway that plays a role not just in 'where' type computations but also in speech processing (the pathway responsible for the sound-to-articulation mapping). 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 The dorsal pathway implicated in auditory tasks includes temporo-parietal, parietal and frontal areas. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 There is evidence from the domain of speech processing that a temporal parietal area plays an important role in the coordinate transformation from auditory to motor coordinates. This Sylvian parieto-temporal area has been argued to be necessary to maintain parity between input and output based speech tasks. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 Aspects of Broca's area (Brodmann areas 44 and 45) are also regularly implicated in speech processing. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 The involvement of frontal cortical areas in perceptual tasks challenge the view that Broca's area is principally responsible for production tasks or synthetic tasks and reinvigorate the discussion of a motor contribution to speech perception. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 257 Debate surrounding mirror neurons and the renewed interest in the motor theory of speech perception. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 258 The idea that time windows of different sizes are relevant for speech analysis and perception derives from several phenomena. Acoustic as well as articulatory phonetic phenomena occur on different time scales. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 258 Investigation of a waveform and spectrogram of a spoken sentence reveals that at the scale of about 20 80 ms, segmental and subsegmental cues are reflected. At the scale of 150 300 ms (corresponding acoustically to the envelope of the waveform), suprasegmental and syllabic phenomena are reflected. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 258 Hypothesis that there are two principal time windows within which a given auditory signal (speech or nonspeech) is processed. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 259 Importance of processing on the (sub-)millisecond scale in the brainstem and the 1000+ millisecond scale for phrases, the two windows play a privileged role in the analysis and perceptual interpretation of audio signals. These two time windows have special consequences for speech perception. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 259 Multi-time resolution processing is built on the concept of temporal integration windows. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 259 Signals are analyzed in a discontinuous fashion. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 259 Hypothesize that there are two integration windows and that their implementation occurs in non-primary auditory cortex. 0
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 262 Analysi- by-synthesis or perception driven by predicted coding based on internal forward models, is a decidedly active stance toward perception that has been characterized as a 'hypothesize-and-test' approach. 3
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 263 Much work in automatic speech recognition has a Bayesian orientation through the use of inverse probability techniques such as hidden Markov models. 1
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 275 Neural specializations for speed and pitch: moving beyond the dichotomies 12
Moore, et.al., Perception of Speech 305 Language processing in the natural world 30
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