Purves, et al.; Neuroscience
Book Page   Topic    
Purves; Neuroscience 12 Reflex circuit, knee-jerk response.
Purves; Neuroscience 17 Neuroanatomical terminology 5
Purves; Neuroscience 25 Brain Imaging Techniques 8
Purves; Neuroscience 31 Electrical Signals in Nerve Cells 6
Purves; Neuroscience 47 Voltage-dependent membrane permeability 16
Purves; Neuroscience 69 Channels and Transporters 22
Purves; Neuroscience 70 Patch clamp method (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 82 Toxins and Ion Channels 12
Purves; Neuroscience 84 Diseases caused by altered ion channels 2
Purves; Neuroscience 93 Synaptic Transmission 9
Purves; Neuroscience 94 Gap junctions, electrical synapses 1
Purves; Neuroscience 129 Neurotransmitters and their Receptors 35
Purves; Neuroscience 129 More than 100 different agents are known to serve as neurotransmitters. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 129 Neuropeptides are relatively large transmitter molecules composed of three to 36 amino acids. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 129 Individual amino acids such as glutamate and GABA, as well as the transmitters acetylcholine, serotonin, and histamine, are much smaller than neuropeptides and have therefore come to be called small molecule neurotransmitters. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 129 Within the category of small molecule neurotransmitters, the biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and histamine) are often discussed separately because of their similar chemical properties and postsynaptic actions. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 129 Acetylcholine (ACh) was the first substance identified as a neurotransmitter. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 131 Functional features of the major neurotransmitters (table) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 131 After synthesis in the cytoplasm of a neuron, a vesicular ACh transporter loads approximately 10,000 molecules of ACh into each cholinergic vesicle. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 135 Positive feelings produced by heroine, generally described as the 'rush', are often compared to the feeling of sexual orgasm and begin in less than a minute after intravenous injection. There is then a feeling of general well-being (referred to as 'on the nod') that lasts about an hour. 4
It's is 135 Symptoms of withdrawal can be intense; these are restlessness, irritability, nausea, muscle pain, depression, sleeplessness, and a sense of anxiety and malaise. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 136 Neurotoxins that act on postsynaptic receptors. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 137 Glutamate is the most important neurotransmitter in normal brain function. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 137 Nearly all excitatory neurons in the central nervous system are glutamatergic. 0
It's is 137 Glutamate is a nonessential amino acid that does not cross the blood brain barrier and therefore must be synthesized in neurons from local precursors. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 139 Several types of glutamate receptors have been identified -- NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, and kainate receptors 2
Purves; Neuroscience 140 Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disease of neuromuscular synapses. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 143 Most inhibitory synapses in the brain and spinal cord use either GABA of glycine as neurotransmitters. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 147 Catecholamines are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 147 Five well-established biogenic amine neurotransmitters -- three catecholamines -- (1) dopamine, (2) norepinephrine (noradrenaline), (3) epinephrine (adrenaline) -- and (4) histamine and (5) serotonin. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 147 Dopamine is present in several brain regions, although the major dopamine containing area of the brain is the corpus striatum, which recieves major input from the substantia nigra and plays an essential role in the coordination of body movements. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 147 Dopamine is also involved in motivation, reward, and reinforcement, and many drugs of abuse work by affecting dopaminergic synapses in the CNS. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 148 Biogenic amine neurotransmitters and Psychiatric disorders. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 149 Dopamine -- Substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area 1
Purves; Neuroscience 149 Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) -- Locus coeruleus 0
Purves; Neuroscience 149 Epinephrine -- Medullary epinephrine neurons 0
Purves; Neuroscience 151 Serotonin is found primarily in groups of neurons in the raphe region of the pons and upper brainstem which have widespread projections to the forebrain and regulate sleep and wakefulness. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 151 A large number of antipsychotic drugs that are valuable in the treatment of depression and anxiety act on serotonergic pathways. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 153 Peptide neurotransmitters 2
Purves; Neuroscience 153 Many peptides known to be hormones also act as neurotransmitters. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 153 Some peptide transmitters have been implicated in modulating emotions. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 153 The mechanisms responsible for the synthesis and packaging of peptide transmitters are fundamentally different from those used for small molecule neurotransmitters and are much like this synthesis of proteins that are secreted from non-neuronal cells. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 154 An especially important category of peptide neurotransmitters is the family of opioids. These peptides are so named because they bind to the same postsynaptic receptors activated by opium. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 155 The opium poppy has been cultivated for at least 5000 years, and its derivatives have been used as an analgesic since at least the Renaissance. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 155 The active ingredients in opium or a variety of plant alkaloids, predominantly morphine. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 155 Morphine, named for Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams, is still one of the most effective analgesics in use today, despite its addictive potential. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 155 Synthetic opiates such as methadone are also used as analgesics. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 155 Fentanyl, a drug with 80 times the analgesic potency of morphine, is widely used in clinical anesthesiology. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 155 Opioid peptides were discovered in the 1970s during a search for endorphins, compounds that mimic the actions of morphine. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 155 It was hoped that the endorphin compounds would be analgesic, and that understanding them would shed light on drug addiction. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 155 The endogenous ligands of the opioid receptors have now been identified as a family of more than 20 opioid peptides. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 Opiod peptides are widely distributed throughout the brain and often colocalized was small molecule neurotransmitters. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 156 In general, peptides tend to be depressants. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 Opioids are also involved in complex behaviors such as sexual attraction and aggressive/submissive behaviors. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 Opioids have been implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 Unfortunately, the repeated administration of opioids leads to tolerance and addiction. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 Virtually all neuropeptides and initiate their effects by activating key protein coupled receptors. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 Peptides activate their ascent is at low concentrations (nM to M) compared to the concentration required to activate receptors for small molecule neurotransmitters. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 156 The properties of peptide neurotransmitters allow the postsynaptic targets to be quite far removed from the presynaptic terminals and to modulate the electrical properties of neurons that are simply in the vicinity of the site of the peptide release. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 159 Nitric oxide (NO) is an unusual but especially interesting chemical signal. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 159 NO can permeate the plasma membrane, meaning that NO generated inside one cell and traveled through the extracellular medium and act within nearby cells. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 159 The NO gaseous signal has a range of influence that extends well beyond the cell of origin, diffusing a few tens of microns from its site at production before it is degraded. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 159 The properties of NO makes it a potentially useful agent for coordinating the activities of multiple cells in a very localized region, and may mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity that spread within small networks of neurons. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 159 NO signals lasts only for a short time, on the order of seconds or less. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 160 Marijuana and the Brain 1
Purves; Neuroscience 165 Molecular signaling within neurons 5
Purves; Neuroscience 169 Categories of cellular receptors: (1) channel-linked receptors, (2) enzyme-linked receptors, (3) G-protein-coupled receptors, (4) intracellular receptors. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 172 Second messengers 3
Purves; Neuroscience 172 Calcium ion (Ca2+) is perhaps the most common intracellular messenger in neurons. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 173 Neuronal second messengers (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 175 Second messenger targets -- protein kinases and phosphatases. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 175 Second messages typically regulate neuronal functions by modulating the phosphorylation state of intracellular proteins. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 175 Phosphorylation rapidly and reversibly changes protein function. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 175 Regulation of cellular proteins by phosphorylation (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 178 Second messengers elicit prolonged changes in neuronal function by promoting the synthesis of new RNA and protein. The resulting accumulation of new proteins requires at least 30-60 minutes, a timeframe that is orders of magnitude slower than the responses mediated by ion fluxes or phosphorylation. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 178 The reversal of second-messenger events requires hours to days. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 179 Steps involved in transcription of DNA and RNA (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 179 Intracellular signaling transduction cascades regulate gene expression by converting the transcriptional activator proteins from an inactive state to an active state in which they are able to bind to DNA. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 179 CREB -- cAMP response element binding protein, is a ubiquitous transcriptional activator. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 180 Transcriptional regulation by CREB (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 180 Multiple signaling pathways converge by activating kinases that phosphorylate CREB. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 180 Many genes whose transcription is regulated by CREB have been identified. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 181 Neuronal Signal Transduction 1
Purves; Neuroscience 181 Understanding the general properties of signal transduction processes at the plasma membrane, in this cytosol, and within the nucleus make it possible to consider how these processes work in concert to mediate specific functions in the brain. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 182 Long term depression (LTD) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 182 Mechanisms of action of NGF: neuronal differentiation; cell survival. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 183 Signaling at cerebellar parallel fibers synapses. (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 184 A diversity of signal transduction pathways exist within all neurons. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 184 Important effectors are protein kinases and phosphatases that regulate the phosphorylation state of their substrates, and thus their function. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 185 Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase by protein phosphorylation (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 190 Major classes of somatic sensory receptors - (table) 5
Purves; Neuroscience 191 Somatic sensory system (diagram) -- Three-neuron relay: Centrally projecting axons of dorsal root ganglion cells; neurons in the brain stem nuclei; neurons of the ventral posterior nuclear complex of the thalamus. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 193 Skin harbors a variety of morphologically distinct mechanoreceptors (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 194 Sensitivity of tactical discrimination -- (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 201 Mechanosensory pathways -- (diagram) 7
Purves; Neuroscience 202 Dermatome -- innervation arising from a single dorsal root ganglion and its spinal nerve -- (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 205 Homunculus -- Human primary somatic sensory cortex - (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 207 Brain modules -- patterns of organization within the sensory cortices 2
Purves; Neuroscience 211 Pain can be separated into an early perception of sharp pain and a later sensation that is described as having a duller, burning quality. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 215 Referred pain (diagram) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 217 Nociceptive information critical for signaling the unpleasant quality of pain (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 220 Inflammatory response (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 226 Descending systems that modulate the transmission of ascending pain signals. 6
Purves; Neuroscience 230 Anatomy of the human eye of (diagram) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 235 Connections between the hippocampus and possible declarative memory storage sites -(diagram) 5
Purves; Neuroscience 241 Structural differences between rods and cones (diagrams) 6
Purves; Neuroscience 241 Rod system has very low spatial resolution but is extremely sensitive to light. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 241 Cone system has very high spatial resolution but is relatively insensitive to light. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 242 Range of luminance values over which the visual system operates (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 243 Macular degeneration 1
Purves; Neuroscience 244 Distribution of rods and cones in the human retina (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 245 Cross-section of the human fovea. Overlying cellular layers and blood vessels are displaced so that light is subjected to a minimum of scattering before photons strike the outer segments of the cones in the center of the fovea, call the foveola. (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 246 Color vision -- light absorption spectra of the four photopigments in the normal human retina. (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 248 Many deficiencies of color vision are the result of genetic alterations in the red or green cone pigments due to the crossing over of chromosomes during meiosis. (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 259 Central visual pathways 11
Purves; Neuroscience 261 Central projections of the retinal ganglion cells. (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 261 Pupillary light reflex (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 262 Blind Spot 1
Purves; Neuroscience 271 Column organization of the striate cortex 9
Purves; Neuroscience 278 Functional organization of extrastriate visual areas 7
Purves; Neuroscience 279 Subdivisions of the extrastriate cortex in the macaque monkey. (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 283 Auditory System 4
Purves; Neuroscience 288 Human ear (diagram) 5
Purves; Neuroscience 292 Cochlea (diagram) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 293 Traveling waves along the cochlea (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 297 Mechanoelectrical transduction mediated by a hair cells (diagram) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 299 Cross-section of the cochlea -- scala vestibuli, scala media, scala tympani, basilar membrane, tectoral membrane. Stereocilia of the hair cells protrude into the endolymph. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 302 Response properties of auditory nerve fibers (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 304 Major auditory pathways (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 307 Integration in the inferior colliculus 3
Purves; Neuroscience 307 Auditory pathways ascending via the olivary and lemniscal complexes, as well as other projections that arise directly from the cochlear nucleus, project to the brain auditory center, the inferior colliculus. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 308 Thalamus is an obligatory relay for all ascending auditory information destined for the cortex. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 309 Human auditory cortex (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 315 Vestibular system 6
Purves; Neuroscience 316 Vestibular labyrinth and its innervation (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 334 Thalamocortical pathways caring vestibular information (diagram) 18
Purves; Neuroscience 337 Chemical Ssenses 3
Purves; Neuroscience 338 Organization of the human olfactory system (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 340 Chemical structure and human perceptual threshold for 12 common odorants. (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 346 Odorant receptor genes (diagram) 6
Purves; Neuroscience 348 Olfactory coding 2
Purves; Neuroscience 353 Organization of the mammalian olfactory bulb. (diagram) 5
Purves; Neuroscience 365 Branches of the trigeminal nerve that innervate the oral, nasal, and ocular cavities. (diagram) 12
Purves; Neuroscience 371 Lower motor neuron circuits and motor control 6
Purves; Neuroscience 372 Overall organization of neural structures in the control of movement - (block diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 372 Cerebellum is located on the dorsal surface of the pons. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 372 Cerebellum acts via it's afferent pathways to the upper motor neurons as a servomechanism, detecting the difference, or motor error, between an intended movement and the movement actually performed. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 373 Basal ganglia suppress unwanted movements and prepare upper motor neuron circuits for the initiation of movements. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 375 There are far more muscle fibers than motor neurons. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 375 Individual motor axons branch within muscles to synapse on many different fibers, distributed over a relatively wide area within the muscle, ensuring that contractile force of the motor unit is spread evenly. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 387 Reflex pathway (diagram) - painful stimulus, spinal cord, withdrawal of limb, crossed extension reflex of contralateral limb, postural support. 12
Purves; Neuroscience 391 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 393 Upper motor neuron control of the brainstem and spinal cord 2
Purves; Neuroscience 398 Reticular formation neurons; early anatomical concepts, 1930s and 40s; damage to the upper brainstem tegmentum produced coma; transitions between sleep and wakefulness. 5
Purves; Neuroscience 398 Clusters of neurons in the midbrain and rostral pontine reticular formation participate in the modulation of conscious states. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 398 Reticular formation: Forebrain projections of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and serotogenergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 398 Biogenic amine neurotransmitters function as neuromodulators that alter the membrane potential and firing patterns of thalamocortical and cortical neurons. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 398 Reticular formation neurons in the caudal pons and medulla oblongata; integrate feedback sensory signals with executive commands from upper motor neurons and deep cerebellar nuclei; organize the efferent activities of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 398 Reticular formation neurons organize mastication, facial expressions, reflexive orofacial behaviors such as sneezing, hiccuping, yawning, swallowing. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 399 Some clusters of the reticular formation organize complex activities that require the coordination of both somatic motor and visceral motor outflow, such as gagging and vomiting, and even laughing and crying. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 399 Stereotypical patterns of movement. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 399 Reticular formation, heterogeneous collection of distinct neuronal clusters in the brainstem tegmentum; that either modulate the excitability of distant neurons in the forebrain and spinal cord; or coordinate the firing pattern of neurons engaged in reflexive or stereotypical somatic motor and visceral motor behavior. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 400 Reticular formation anatomy - (diagram) Neurons in the reticular formation are scattered among the axon bundles that course through the medial portion of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. (1) Midbrain, (2) Lower pons, (3) Middle medulla 1
Purves; Neuroscience 400 Postural control entails an anticipatory, or feedforward, mechanism. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 402 Upper motor neurons reside in several adjacent and highly interconnected areas in the frontal lobe. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 402 Upper motor neurons receive regulatory input from the basal ganglia and cerebellum via relays in the ventrolateral thalamus, as well as inputs from the somatic sensory regions of the parietal lobe. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 402 Pyramidal cells of cortical layer V are the upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 403 Upper motor neuron pathway; corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 405 Motor cortex contains a complete representation, or map, of the body's musculature. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 406 Topographic map of the body musculature in the primary motor cortex - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 408 What do motor maps represent? Somatotopic maps in the motor cortex; Fine structure of the map; Details of motor maps; Patterns of activity in the motor cortex generate a given movement. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 412 Lateral and medial areas of the premotor cortex are involved in selecting specific movement or sequence of movements from a repertoire of possible movements. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 414 Muscle tone in the leg muscles prevents the amount of sway that normally occurs while standing from becoming too large. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 415 Postural regulation -- reticular formation is especially important in feedforward control of posture; anticipation of changes in body stability. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 415 Vestibular nuclei that project to the spinal cord are especially important in feedback postural mechanisms; response to sensory signals that indicate an existing postural disturbance. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 415 Premotor cortices -- planning and selecting movements; primary motor cortex is responsible for their execution. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 415 Brainstem pathways can independently organize gross motor control. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 415 Direct projections from the motor cortex to local circuit neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord are essential for the fine, fractionated movements. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 417 Basal ganglia - large and functionally diverse set of nuclei: caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus in the ventral thalamus. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 417 Certain basal ganglia components are required to initiate a movement and to terminate a movement. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 417 Motor components of the basal ganglia make a subcortical loop that links most areas of the cortex with upper motor neurons in the primary and premotor cortex along with neurons in the brainstem. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 417 Caudate and putamen of the corpus striatum comprise the input zone of the basal ganglia. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Basic circuits of the basal ganglia, excitatory and inhibitory connections. (Diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Motor components of the basal ganglia - (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Basal ganglia pathway: Most of the structures are in the telencephalon, although substantia nigra is in the midbrain, and thalamic and subthalamic nuclei are in the diencephalon. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Ventral anterior and ventral lateral thalamic nuclei (VA/VL complex) are targets of the basal ganglia, relaying the modulatory affects of the basal ganglia to upper motor neurons in the cortex. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Large dendritic trees of the striatum allow them to integrate inputs from a variety of cortical, thalamic, and brainstem structures. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata are the main sources of output from the basal ganglia complex. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Nearly all regions of the neocortex project directly to the striatum, making the cerebral cortex the source of the largest input to the basal ganglia, by far. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 The only cortical areas that do not project to the striatum are the primary visual and primary auditory cortices. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Of the cortical areas that innervate the striatum, the heaviest projections are from association areas in the frontal and parietal lobes, but substantial contributions also arise from the temporal, insular, and cingulate cortices. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 418 Association cortices do not process any one type of sensory information; rather, they receive inputs from a number of primary and secondary sensory cortices and associated thalamic nuclei. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 419 Anatomical organization of inputs to the basal ganglia, caudate and putamen. - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 419 The fact that different cortical areas project to different regions of the striatum implies that the corticostriatal pathway consists of multiple parallel pathways serving different functions. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 419 Corpus striatum is functionally subdivided according to its inputs. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 419 Visual and somatic sensory cortical projections are topographically mapped within different regions of the putamen. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 419 Rostrocaudal bands within the striatum; functional units concerned with the movement of particular body parts. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 420 Neurons and circuits of the basal ganglia - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 420 Functionally distinct pathways project parallel from the cortex to the striatum. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 422 Functional organization of outputs from the basal ganglia - (block diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 423 Efferent neurons of the internal globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata together give rise to the major pathways that link the basal ganglia with upper motor neurons located in the cortex and in the brainstem. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 423 Pathway from basal ganglia to the cortex arises primarily in the internal globus pallidus and reaches the motor cortex after a relay in the ventral anterior- and ventral lateral-nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. These thalamic nuclei project directly to motor areas of the cortex, thus completing a vast loop that originates in multiple cortical areas and terminates (after relays in the basal ganglia and thalamus) back in the motor areas of the frontal lobe. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 423 Axons from substantia nigra pars reticulata synapse on upper motor neurons in the superior colliculus that command eye movements, without an intervening relay in the thalamus 0
Purves; Neuroscience 423 Because efferent cells of both the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata are GABAergic, the main output of the basal ganglia is inhibitory. In contrast to the quiescent medium spiny neurons, the neurons in both these output zones have high levels of spontaneous activity that tend to prevent unwanted movements by tonically inhibiting cells in the superior colliculus and thalamus. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 429 Parkinson's Disease 6
Purves; Neuroscience 432 Basal ganglia loops and non-motor brain functions - (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 433 Tourette's syndrome: excessive activity in basal ganglia loops. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 435 Cerebellum influences movements by modifying activity patterns of the upper motor neurons. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 435 Primary function of the cerebellum is to detect the difference, or motor error, between an intended movement and the actual movement, and through its projections to the upper motor neurons, to reduce the error. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 435 Like the basal ganglia, the cerebellum is part of a vast loop that receives projections from and sends projections back to the cerebral cortex and brainstem. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 435 Cerebellum is concerned with the regulation of highly skilled movements, especially the planning and execution of complex spatial and temporal sequences of movement, including speech. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 436 Cerebellum - overall organization and subdivisions - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 438 Inferior Olive - (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 438 Cerebral cortex is by far the largest source of inputs to the cerebellum. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 440 Cerebellum outputs to cerebral cortex - (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 440 Cerebellum projects to motor neurons in the cortex via a relay in the thalamus and in the brainstem. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 443 Purkinje cells - excitatory and inhibitory connections in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 443 Climbing fiber from Inferior Olive - (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 443 Purkinje cell output to the deep cerebellar nuclear cell generates an error correction signal that modify movements already begun. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 444 Prion diseases 1
Purves; Neuroscience 454 Actions and innervation of Extraocular Muscles 10
Purves; Neuroscience 458 Neural control of Saccadic Movements 4
Purves; Neuroscience 462 Sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 472 Visceral motor system - Sympathetic; Parasympathetic - (diagram) 10
Purves; Neuroscience 474 Summary of major functions of the Viseral Motor System - (Table) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 483 Central autonomic network for control of visceral motor function - (diagram) -- Medial prefrontal cortex, Insular cortex, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem reticular formation, autonomic ganglia, spinal visceral sensory neurons, cranial nerves IX and X, etc. 9
Purves; Neuroscience 483 Central control of visceral motor system - (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 484 Hypothalamus - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 492 Autonomic control of cardiovascular function - (diagram) 8
Purves; Neuroscience 494 Autonomic control of bladder function - (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 497 Autonomic control of sexual function in the human male - (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 501 Early brain development. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 505 Stem cells. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 510 Formation of Major Brain Subdivisions 5
Purves; Neuroscience 512 Homeotic genes and brain development. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 516 Precursor cells are located in the ventricular zone, the innermost cell layer surrounding the lumen of the neural tube, in a region of extraordinary mitotic activity. It has been estimated that in humans, about 250,000 new neurons are generated each minute during the peak of cell proliferation during gestation. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 519 Generation of cortical neurons during gestation, Cortical layers - (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 520 Migration is a ubiquitous feature of development that brings cells into appropriate spacial relationships. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 520 Migration of postmitotic neuroblasts in the fetal brain. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 522 Radial migration in the developing cortex - (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 523 Stereotyped movements bring different classes of cells into contact with one another, thereby constraining cell-cell signaling to specific times and places. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 524 Cortical projection neurons, interneurons, astrocytes and oligodendroglia were probably not derived from the same precursor pools. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 524 Mosaic of transcriptional regulators whose expression and activity is restricted to various domains in the ventral forebrain orchestrates the long distance migration of distinct cell types. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 527 Growth cones are highly motile structures that explore the extracellular environment. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 529 Basic structure of growth cones - (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 530 Axon Guidance at the Optic Chiasm. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 532 Axon guidance molecules, ligands and receptors - (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 532 Semaphorins, repulsive cues, either bound to cell surface or secreted; receptors (plexins and neuropilin) found in growth cones. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 533 Growth cone interactions with environment - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 536 Secreted factor "slit" and its receptor "robo", preventing an axon from straying back over the midline once it has crossed in response to netrin. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 537 Formation of topographic maps - in the somaticsensory, visual, and motor systems, neuronal connections in the periphery are arranged as similarly adjacent locations in the central nervous system. In the early 1960s, Roger Sperry articulated the chemoaffinity hypothesis. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 543 Neurotrophins - intercellular signaling molecules, originate from target tissues and regulate neuronal differentiation, growth, and survival. 6
Purves; Neuroscience 548 Neuron innervated by 105 inputs, (mammalian brain neurons may have as many as 105 synapses on dendrites) 5
Purves; Neuroscience 552 Discovery of BDNF and the neurotrophin family. 4
Purves; Neuroscience 554 Neurotrophin receptors and their specificity for the neurotrophins. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 555 Signaling to the neurotrophins and their receptors. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 557 Modification of brain circuits as a result of experience. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 557 Uniqueness of individual human brains -- genetic and environmental influences. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 557 Neuronal activity generated by interactions with the outside world in postnatal life provides a mechanism by which the environment can influence brain structure and function. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 557 Many of the effects of activity are transduced via signaling pathways that modify levels of intracellular Ca2+ and thus influence local cytoskeletal organization as well as gene expression. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 557 As humans and other mammals mature, the brain becomes increasingly refractory to the lessons of experience. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 557 Critical periods -- environmental factors are especially influential in early life during temporal windows. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 558 Imprinted geese -- Konrad Lorenz 1
Purves; Neuroscience 559 Learning a language has critical period for humans. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 560 Birdsong 1
Purves; Neuroscience 562 Critical periods in visual system development -- ocular dominance columns. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 563 Ocular dominance columns (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 564 Transneuronal labeling with radioactive amino acids. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 570 Representation of Hebb's postulate as it might operate during development of the visual system. 6
Purves; Neuroscience 575 Plasticity of my mature synapses and circuits. 5
Purves; Neuroscience 575 New neurons can be generated throughout life in a limited number of brain regions, suggesting that new cells can be integrated into existing circuits. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 575 Synaptic plasticity underlies behavioral modification in invertebrates. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 575 Eric Kandel and his colleagues at Columbia University. Marine mollusk Aplysia Californica. This sea slug has only a few tens of thousands of neurons, many of which are quite large (up to 1 in diameter). 0
Purves; Neuroscience 577 Habituation is found in many species, including humans. When dressing, we initially experience tactile sensations due to clothes stimulating our skin, but hibituation quickly causes these sensations to fade. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 579 The same serotonin-induced enhancement of glutamate-release that mediates short-term sensitization is also thought to underlie long-term sensitization. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 579 Neural mechanisms underlying plasticity in the adult nervous system. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 579 Behavioral plasticity can arise from plastic changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These changes in synaptic function can be either short-term effects that rely on post-translational modification of existing synaptic proteins, or long-term changes that require changes in gene expression, new protein synthesis, and perhaps even growth of new synapses, or elimination of existing ones. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 584 Long-term potentiation of Hippocampal synapses. 5
Purves; Neuroscience 584 Many other brain areas are involved in the complex process of memory formation, storage and retrieval. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 585 Dendrites of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region receive synapses from Schaffer collaterals, the axons of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 585 A brief, high-frequency train of stimuli causes LTP. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 585 LTP occurs not only at the excitatory synapses of the hippocampus but at many other synapses in a variety of brain regions, including the cortex, amygdala, and cerebellum. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 585 Potentiation of synaptic transmission persists for several hours. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 586 State of the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell determines whether LTP occurs. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 586 LTP is restricted to the activated synapses, rather than to all the synapses on a given cell. This characteristic of LTP is consistent with the storage of specific information. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 586 If one pathway is weakly activated at the same time that a neighboring pathway on the same cell is strongly activated, both synaptic pathways undergo LTP. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 588 NMDA receptor behaves as a molecular "and" gate. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 588 NMDA receptor can detect the coincidence of two events. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 597 Changes in gene expression cause enduring changes in synaptic function during LTP and LTD. 9
Purves; Neuroscience 597 Initial basis of long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity in the mammalian CNS, such as LTP and LTD, entail post-translational changes that lead to altered distributions or density of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 597 Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity requires changes in gene expression. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 597 Hippocampal LTP has an early phase that involves post-translational mechanisms, it also has a later phase that depends on gene expression and the synthesis of new proteins. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 597 Late phase of LTP is initiated by transcription factors such as CREB, which stimulate the expression of other transcriptional regulators. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 597 Number and size of synaptic contacts increases during LTP. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 598 Mechanisms responsible for long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission during LTP. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 599 Some of the proteins newly synthesized during LTP are involved in construction of new synaptic contacts. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 599 Behavioral plasticity requires activity-dependent synaptic changes that lead to changes in the functional connections within and among neural circuits. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 599 Changes in the efficacy and local geometry of connectivity provide a basis for learning and memory. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 599 Abnormal patterns of neuronal activity, such as epilepsy, can stimulate abnormal changes in synaptic connections that may further increase the frequency and severity of seizures. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 599 How selective changes of synaptic strength encode memories or other complex behavioral modifications in the mammalian brain is not known. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 599 Plasticity in Adult Cerebral Cortex 0
Purves; Neuroscience 600 Epilepsy: the effect of pathological activity on Neural Circuitry 1
Purves; Neuroscience 600 Many highly accomplished people have suffered from epilepsy: Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Napoleon, Dostoyevsky, van Gogh. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 600 Plastic changes in the visual, auditory, and motor cortices. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 602 Limited changes in cortical circuitry can occur in the adult brain. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 602 Basic features of cortical organization -- such as ocular dominance columns and the broader topographical organization of inputs from the thalamus -- remain fixed. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 602 Rapid and reversible character of most of these changes in cortical function probably reflect alterations in the strength of synapses already present. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 602 Adult plasticity indicates that normal experience can alter the strength of existing synapses and even elicit some local remodeling of synapses and circuits. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 603 When peripheral nerves are injured, the damaged axons regenerate vigorously and can re-grow over distances of many centimeters. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 603 CNS axons typically fail to regenerate. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 608 Neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. 5
Purves; Neuroscience 613 Association cortices. 5
Purves; Neuroscience 614 Primary cortices occupy a relatively small fraction of the total cortical area. Remainder of the neocortex, association cortices, is the seat of human cognitive ability. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 615 Structure of the human neocortex, including the association cortices (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 615 Brodmann areas (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 616 Canonical neocortical circuitry. Thalamic input primarily to layer 4. (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 617 Cortical lamination (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 618 Connectivity of the association cortices (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 620 Neuroanatomy of attention (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 625 Psychosurgery 5
Purves; Neuroscience 634 Brain size and intelligence 9
Purves; Neuroscience 637 Language and speech 3
Purves; Neuroscience 638 Major brain areas involved in a comprehension and production of language (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 639 Relationship of the major language areas to the classical map of the cerebral cortex. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 640 Speech -- throat sagittal (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 644 Characteristics of Broca's and Wernicke's aphasias (table) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 646 Language and lateralization (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 650 Language and handedness 4
Purves; Neuroscience 652 Cortical variability of language representation among individuals -- Roger Penfield's original study data (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 659 Sleep and wakefulness 7
Purves; Neuroscience 661 Styles of sleep in different species (diagram) 2
Purves; Neuroscience 668 electroencephalography 7
Purves; Neuroscience 673 Circuitry involved in the decreased sensation and the muscle paralysis that occurs during REM sleep (diagram) 5
Purves; Neuroscience 676 Cortical regions whose activity is increased or decreased during REM sleep (diagram) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 677 A key component of the reticular activating system is a group of cholinergic nuclei near the pons-midbrain junction that project to the thalamocortical neurons. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 681 AIM diagram (Hobson), sleep-wake states - (diagram) 4
Purves; Neuroscience 682 Sleep apnea 1
Purves; Neuroscience 687 Emotions 5
Purves; Neuroscience 693 Limbic system 6
Purves; Neuroscience 694 In the 1850s, Paul Broca use the term 'limbic lobe' to refer to the part of the cerebral cortex that forms a rim (limbus is Latin for rim) around the corpus callosum and diencephalon on the medial face of the hemispheres. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 694 Hippocampus now appears to have little to do with emotional behavior, whereas the amygdala plays a major role in the experience and expression of emotion. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 694 Limbic lobe includes the cortex on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere that forms a rim around the corpus callosum and diencephalon, including the cingulate gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 695 Modern conception of the limbic system (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 696 Anatomy of the amygdala (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 701 Generally, the amygdala and its connections to the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia are likely to influence the selection and initiation of behaviors aimed at obtaining rewards and avoiding punishments. 5
Purves; Neuroscience 703 It is likely that interactions between the amygdala and neocortex and related subcortical circuits account for what is perhaps the most enigmatic aspect of emotional experience: the highly subjective 'feelings' that attend most emotional states. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 711 Sex, sexuality, and the brain 8
Purves; Neuroscience 711 Sexually dimorphic brain structures tend to cluster around the third ventricle in the anterior hypothalamus and are an integral part of the system that governs visceral motor behavior. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 713 Brain circuits in primates are masculinized primarily by the actions of androgens. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 714 Development of male and female phenotypes (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 723 Components of the hypothalamus (diagram) 9
Purves; Neuroscience 733 Declarative memory 10
Purves; Neuroscience 733 Nondeclarative memory 0
Purves; Neuroscience 734 Immediate memory (fractions of a second) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 735 Working memory (seconds to minutes) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 736 Long-term memory (days, weeks, or a lifetime) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 736 Long-term memory - long-term changes in the efficacy of transmission of the relevant synoptic connections, and/or the growth and reordering of the connections. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 736 Priming 0
Purves; Neuroscience 736 Association in information storage. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 738 Forgetting 2
Purves; Neuroscience 741 Hippocampus - establishing new declarative memories. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 742 Case of H. M. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 744 Formation of declarative memories depends on the hippocampus and its subcortical connections to the mammillary bodies and dorsal thalamus. 2
Purves; Neuroscience 746 Brain Systems Underlying Long-Term Storage of Declarative Memory 2
Purves; Neuroscience 747 Declarative memories are stored widely in specialized areas of the cerebral cortex. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 747 Retrieving declarative memories involves the medial temporal lobe, as well as regions of the frontal cortex. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 747 Connections between the hippocampus and possible declarative memory storage sites -(diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 748 Nondeclarative memory involves the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, sensory association cortex, and cerebellum. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 748 Brain Systems Underlying Nondeclarative Learning and Memory 0
Purves; Neuroscience 749 Acquisition and storage of declarative vs. nondeclarative information - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 752 Age-related neurodegeneration may be slowed in elderly people who make special effort to continue using their full range of human memory abilities (both declarative and nondeclarative) 3
Purves; Neuroscience 755 Cerebellum is attached to the dorsal aspect of the pons by three large white-matter tracts, the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles. 3
Purves; Neuroscience 755 Inferior olivary complex 0
Purves; Neuroscience 755 Brainstem is involved in regulating the level of consciousness, primarily through the extensive forebrain projections of the reticular formation. 0
Purves; Neuroscience 756 Cranial nerve VIII, Vestibulocochlear (auditory) nerve, hearing, junction of pons and medulla. 1
Purves; Neuroscience 758 Ventral view of brainstem, cranial nerves; midbrain, pons, medulla, spinal cord 2
Purves; Neuroscience 759 Dorsal view of brainstem, cranial nerves, thalamus 1
Purves; Neuroscience 759 Major brainstem subdivisions - (diagram) 0
Purves; Neuroscience 765 Major arteries of the brain (diagram) 6
Purves; Neuroscience 767 Stroke 2
Purves; Neuroscience 768 Cellular basis of the blood-brain barrier (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 769 Meninges of the brain (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 770 Circulation of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 771 Ventricular system of the human brain. - (diagram) 1
Purves; Neuroscience 772 Total volume of CSF in the ventricular system is approximately 140 mL. Entire volume in the system is turned over several times a day. 1