Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain
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Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 17 In humans that cortex has grown so large that it has been forced to become convoluted (folded), giving it its famous cauliflower like appearance. (In contrast, the cortex of most other mammals is smooth and flat for the most part, with few if any folds in the surface.)
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 17 The brainstem is divided into three lobes: medulla, ponds, and midbrain.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 The medulla and nuclei on the floor of the ponds control important vital functions like breathing, blood pressure, and body temperature.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 The cerebellum controls the fine coordination of movements and is also involved in balance, gate, and posture.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 The cerebellum also receives sensory feedback from muscles and joints receptors throughout the body.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 Mismatches between intended action and the actual action can be detected and appropriate corrections can be inserted into the outgoing motor signal.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 The thalamus receives its major inputs from the sense organs and relieved relays them to the sensory cortex.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 The basal ganglia air are cluster of structures that are concerned with the control of automatic movements associated with complex volitional actions.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 18 Damage to cells in the basal ganglia result in disorders like Parkinson's disease, in which the patient's torso is stiff, his face is an expressionless mask, and he walks with a characteristic shuffling gait.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 Excessive amounts of brain chemical dopamine and the basal ganglia can lead to disorders known as choreas which are characterized by uncontrollable movements that have a superficial resemblance to dancing
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 Each cerebral hemisphere of its cerebral cortex is subdivided into four lobes: occipital, temporal, Parenteau, and frontal.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 Tthe occipital lobes are mainly concerned with visual processing. They are subdivided into as many as 30 distinct processing regions.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 The temporal lobes a specialized for hire perceptual functions, such as recognizing faces.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 The upper part of the left temporal lobe contains a patch of cortex known as Wernicke's area. In humans this area is seven times the size of the same area in chimpanzees.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 Wernicke's area function is the comprehensive comprehension of meaning and the semantic aspects of language.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 19 The parietal lobes are primarily involved in processing touch, muscle, and joint information from the body and combining it with vision, hearing, and balance to give you a rich "multi-media" understanding of your self and the world around you.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 22 Mirror neurons fire not only when you perform an action, but also when you watch someone else perform the same action.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 22 What mirror neurons do is effectively allow you to empathize with another person and read their intentions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 22 Usually your mirror neurons are reasonably accurate guesses of others' intentions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 22 Mirror neurons are also seen in apes, but only in humans have these neurons developed to the point of being able to model aspect of others' minds rather than merely their actions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 23 Mirror neurons may well be central to social learning, imitation, and cultural transmission of skills and attitudes. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 23 By hyperdeveloping the mirror neuron system, evolution in effect turned culture into the new genome. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 23 Culture became a significant new source of evolutionary pressure, which helped select for brains that had even better mirror neuron systems and imitative learning associated with them. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 38 Laughter -- and its cognitive companion, humor -- is a universal trait present in all cultures. 15
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 38 Why and how humor evolved is a mystery. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 38 In any joke or humorous incident, you narrate a story step-by-step, leading the listener along the garden path of expectation, and then introduce an unexpected twist, a punch line, the comprehension of which requires a complete reinterpretation of the preceding events. But that's not enough. The extra key ingredient is that the new interpretation must be inconsequential. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 39 Laughter may be nature's 'false alarm' signal. By laughing you inform people in the vicinity not to waste their resources rushing to an unfortunate victim's aid. It is nature's "all's okay" signal. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 39 The sensation of pain is initially processed in a small structure called the insula ("island"), which is folded deep beneath the temporal lobe on side of the brain. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 39 From the insular the pain information is then relayed to the anterior cingulate in the frontal lobes. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 39 It is in the anterior cingulate that you feel the actual unpleasantness -- the agony and awfulness of pain -- along with an expectation of danger. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 39 Humans have two key ingredients for laughter -- a palpable and imminent indication that alarm is warranted (from the insula) followed by a "no-big-deal" follow-up. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 41 Carnivores and herbivores probably have fewer than a dozen visual areas and no color vision. 2
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 41 Humans have as many as 30 visual areas instead of a mere dozen. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 42 The shift in diet of our shrew-like ancestors from tiny nocturnal insects to red, yellow, and blue fruits, as well as to leaves whose nutritional value was color-coded into various shades of green, brown, and yellow, propelled the emergence of a sophisticated system for color vision. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 62 Visual information from the retina gets to the brain via two pathways.(diagram) 20
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 62 The old pathway relays through the superior colliculus, arriving eventually in the parietal lobe. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 62 The new visual pathway goes via the lateral genetically nucleus (LGN) to the visual cortex and then splits once again into the "how" and "what" streams. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 62 The old pathway enables us to orient toward objects and track them with our eyes and heads. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 The new pathway, which is highly developed in humans and in primates generally, allows sophisticated analysis and recognition of complex visual scenes and objects. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 The new pathway projects from the retina to V1, the first and largest of our cortical visual maps, and from their splits into two subpathways, or streams -- the "where" stream and "what" strain. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 The "where" stream is concerned with the relationship among visual objects in space. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 The what stream is concerned with the relationships of features within visual objects themselves. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 The where stream's function overlaps to some extent with that of the old pathway, but it mediates much more sophisticated aspects of spatial vision -- determining the overall spatial layout of the visual scene rather than just the location of an object. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 The "where" stream projects to the parietal lobe and has strong links to the motor system. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 Most of these computations are unconscious and highly automated. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 A blindsight patient suffered substantial damage to his left visual cortex -- the origin for both the "where" and "what" streams. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 63 Blindsight discovered in Oxford by Larry Weizkrantz in the late 1970s. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 64 The "what" pathway projects from V1 to the fusiform gyrus, an area mainly performing the classification of objects. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 64 Some aspects of meaning are probably fed back from higher centers to the fusiform. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 64 As the ventral pathway precedes past the fusiform to other parts of the temporal lobes, it evokes not only the name of the thing but a penumbra of associated memories and facts about it -- broadly speaking the semantics, or meaning, of an object. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 64 The semantic retrieval process involves widespread activation of the temporal lobes, but it seems to center on a handful of bottlenecks that include Wernicke's language area and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), which is involved in quintessentially human abilities such as naming, reading, writing, and arithmetic. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 Once the meaning is extracted, the neural messages are relayed to the amygdala, evoking feelings about what (or whom) you are seeing. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 A third pathway carrying biologically salient stimuli such as eyes, food, facial expressions, and animate motion passes from the fusiform gyrus through an area of the temporal lobe called the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and then straight to the amygdala. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 The third pathway bypasses high-level object perception and shunts quickly to the amygdala. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 The third pathway is a shortcut, probably evolved to promote fast reaction to the high-value situations, whether innate or learned. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 The amygdala works in conjunction with past stored memories and other structures in the limbic system to gauge the emotional significance. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 For an intense feeling, the signals from the amygdala cascade into the hypothalamus, which not only orchestrates the release of hormones but also activates the autonomic nervous system to prepare for appropriate action. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 Medical students use the mnemonic of the "four F's" to remember feeding, fighting, fleeing, or wooing. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 The autonomic responses include all of the physiological signs of strong emotion such as increased heart rate, rapid shallow breathing, and sweating. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 65 The amygdala is also connected with the frontal lobes, which adds subtle flavors of the 4F cocktail of primal emotions, so that you have not just anger, lust, and fear, but also arrogance, pride, caution, admiration, magnanimity, etc. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 66 Segmentation, the function involved in knowing which fragments of a visual scene belong together to constitute a single object, is a critical prelude to object recognition in the "what" stream. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 67 Color vision area V4 lies in the same brain region -- the fusiform gyrus -- as the face recognition area. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 68 Emotionally responding to the recognition of objects or faces is the very last step in the chain of events that we call perception. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 69 Strong sexual attraction to his mother when he was a baby -- the so-called Oedipus complex. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 70 Part of the continuous autonomic reactions to experience is microsweating -- your whole body, including your palms, become damper or dryer in proportion to the level of emotional arousal. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 70 measure emotional reaction to things by simply monitoring the degree of micro selecting.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 70 tape being too passive electrodes to the skin and routing them through a ohmmeter.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 70 monitor a galvanic skin response (GSR), the moment to moment fluctuations and the electrical resistance of the skin.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 94 The number area and V4 are right next to each other in the fusiform gyrus. 24
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 94 The most common type of synesthesia is the number-color type, and the number and color areas are immediate neighbors in the brain. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 94 Since the 19th century a debate has raged between phrenology -- the notion that different functions are sharply localized in different brain areas -- versus holism, which holds that functions are emergent properties of the entire brain whose parts are in constant interaction. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 95 Even high-level perception such as tools or vegetables or fruits -- which border on being concepts rather than mere perceptions -- can be lost selectively depending on the particular small region of the brain that is damaged by stroke or accident. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 95 The brain's specialized regions are organized as hierarchies. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 95 In the brain's hierarchical system, each higher level carries out more sophisticated tasks, but there is an enormous amount of feedback and crosstalk. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 95 Numerical computation seems to occur in stages -- an early stage in the fusiform gyrus where the actual shapes of numbers are represented, and a later stage in the angular gyrus concerned with numerical concepts such as ordinality (sequence) and cardinality (quantity). 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 98 The insula maps internal feelings from your body. 3
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 98 The insula receives continuous streams of sensation from receptor cells in your heart, lungs, liver, viscera, bones, joints, ligaments, fascia, and muscles, as well as from specialized receptors in your skin that sense heat, cold, pain, sensual touch, and perhaps tickle and itch. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 98 The insula uses its input streams of information to represent how you feel in relation to the outside world and your immediate environment. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 98 As a central player in your emotional life, your insula sends signals to and receives signals from other emotional centers in your brain including the amygdala, the autonomic nervous system (powered by the hypothalamus), and the orbitofrontal cortex, which is involved in nuanced emotional judgments. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 98 The insula receives strong taste input from the tongue. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 101 The fusiform gyrus represents not only shapes like letters of the alphabet but faces as well. 3
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 102 Neurally linking color with emotion was probably initially to attract us to ripe fruit and/or tender new shoots and leaves. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 102 The linked effects of color and emotion probably arise through interactions between the insula and higher brain regions devoted to color. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 103 The musician Listz may have seen colors where there were only tones. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 104 One thing that poets and novelists have in common is that they are especially good at using metaphor. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 106 Puns are based on superficial associations. 2
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 106 Schizophrenics, who have miswired brains, are terrible at interpreting metaphors and proverbs, yet according to clinical folklore, they are very good at puns. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 106 Both metaphors and puns involve linking seemingly unrelated concepts. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 106 Puns are actually the opposite of metaphor. A metaphor exploits a surface-level similarity to reveal a deep hidden connection. A pun is a surface-level similarity that masquerades as a deep one -- hence its comic appeal. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 107 Relatively high incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in humans. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 107 The retention of genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the human population may have advantages in boosting creativity, intelligence, or subtle social-emotional faculties. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 117 Mirror neurons may have played a pivotal role in humans becoming the one and only species that veritably lives and breathes culture. 10
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 117 Culture consists of massive collections of complex skills and knowledge, which are transferred from person to person through two core mediums: language and imitation. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 The ability to save the world from another person's vantage point is essential for constructing a mental model of another person's complex thoughts and intentions in order to predict and manipulate his behavior. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 A theory of mind is unique to humans. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 Certain aspects of language was probably built partly on our facility for imitation. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 Darwin's theory of evolution is one of the most important scientific discoveries of all time. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 Unfortunately, Darwin's theory of evolution makes no provision for an afterlife. Consequently it has provoked more acrimonious debate than any other topic in science. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 Richard Dawkins has stated that teaching intelligent design is little different from giving equal status to the idea that the sun goes around the earth. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 The hominid brain reach nearly its present size, and perhaps even its present intellectual capacity, about 300,000 years ago. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 118 Many of the attributes we regard a uniquely human -- such as toolmaking, fire building, art, music, and perhaps even full-blown language -- appeared only much later, around 75,000 years ago. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 Crude Oldowan tools -- made by just a few blows to a core stone to create an irregular edge -- emerged 2.4 million years ago and were probably made by Homo habilis, whose brain size was halfway between that of chimps and modern humans. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 After 1 million years of evolutionary stasis, aesthetically pleasing symmetrical tools began to appear, which reflected a standardized production technique. These required switching from a hard hammer to a soft, perhaps a wooden, hammer while the tool is being made, so as to ensure a smooth rather than a jagged irregular edge. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 The invention of stereotyped assembly-line tools -- sophisticated symmetrical bifacial tools that were hafted to a handle -- took place only 200,000 years ago. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 What was the role of tool use in shaping human cognition? 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 "Great leap" in mental sophistication about 60,000 years ago -- widespread cave art, clothing, and constructed dwellings appeared. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 Humans are often called the "Machiavellian primate," referring to our ability to predict other people's behavior and outsmart them. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 119 Why are humans so good at reading one another's intention? 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 120 How did language evolve? 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 120 Unlike many other human traits such as humor, art, dancing, and music, the survival value of language is obvious -- it lets us communicate our thoughts and intentions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 120 The human vocal apparatus is vastly more sophisticated than any other ape, but without the correspondingly sophisticated language areas in the brain, such exquisite articulatory equipment alone would be useless. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 120 Maybe our vocal equipment and our remarkable ability to modulate our voice evolved mainly for producing emotional calls and musical sounds during courtship in early primates. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 120 Is language mediated by a sophisticated and highly specialized mental language organ that is unique to humans as suggested by MIT linguist Noam Chomsky? 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 120 Is there a more primitive gestural communication system already in place that provided scaffolding for the emergence of vocal language? A major piece of the solution comes from the discovery of mirror neurons. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 121 In monkeys, mirror neurons enable that prediction a simple goal-directed actions of other monkeys. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 121 In humans, mirror neurons have become sophisticated enough to interpret even complex actions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 121 Mirror neurons also enable us to an imitate the movements of others, thereby setting the stage for cultural "inheritance" of skills developed and honed by others. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 122 Mirror neurons may also enable you to mime the lip and tongue movements of others, which could provide the evolutionary basis for vertebral utterances. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 122 The mirror neuron arguments do not in any way negate the idea that there are specialized brain areas for language in humans. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 123 One of the chief areas where mirror neurons abound in monkeys, the ventral premotor area, may be a precursor of our celebrated Broca's area, a brain center associated with the expressive aspects of human language. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 123 Language is not confined to any single brain area, but the left inferior parietal lobe is certainly one of the areas that are crucially involved, especially in the representation of word meaning. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 123 In the strange disorder call anosognosia, people seem unaware of or deny their disability. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 123 Most people with a right hemisphere stroke have complete paralysis of the left side of their body and, as you might expect, complain about it. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 123 About 5% of patients with right hemisphere stroke will vehemently deny their paralysis, even though they are mentally otherwise lucid and intelligent. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 123 President Woodrow Wilson, whose left side was paralyzed by a stroke in 1919, insisted that he was perfectly fine. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 124 Neurons in the anterior cingulate have long been known to respond to physical pain. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 124 Anytime you watch someone doing something, the neurons that your brain would use to do the same thing become active -- as if you yourself were doing it. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 125 Some degree of leakage from the mirror neuron system can occur in normal individuals. We feel ourselves unconsciously flexing our muscles when watching an athlete beginning to throw a football. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 126 Are mirror neuron functions present innately, or learned, or perhaps a little of both? 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 126 How are mirror neurons wired up, and how do they perform their functions? 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 127 A newborn infant will often protrude its tongue when watching its mother do it. The neural circuitry involved must be hardwired and not based on associative learning. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 127 An infant's smile echoing its mother's smile appears at about six weeks, but it can't be based on learning since the infant can't see its own face. It has to be innate. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 128 Mirror neurons allow you to figure out someone else's intentions. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 128 The ability to have a theory of mind may exist in the great apes in rudimentary form, but humans are exceptionally good at it. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 128 In addition to allowing us to see the world from another person's visual vantage point, mirror neurons have evolved further, enabling us to adopt the other person's conceptual vantage point. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 128 We use metaphors like "I see what you mean" or "Try to see it from my point of view." 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 128 As a corollary to adopting the others point of view, you can also see yourself as others see you -- an essential ingredient of self awareness. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 128 When we speak of someone being self-conscious, what we really mean is that she is conscious of someone else being conscious of her. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 132 Most English speakers have a vocabulary of about 10,000 words. 4
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 132 Mirror neurons allow us to imitate. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 132 Miming may have been the key step in hominid evolution, resulting in our ability to transmit knowledge through example. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 138 The human's highly sophisticated theory of mind is one of the most unique and powerful faculties of the human brain. 6
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 138 Human theory of mind apparently does not rely on general intelligence -- the rational intelligence used to reason, draw inferences, combine facts, etc. -- but on a specialized set of brain mechanisms that evolved to endow us with our equally important degree of social intelligence. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 139 Perhaps autistic children's profound deficits in social interactions stem from their theory of mind circuitry being somehow compromised. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 139 Many brain imaging studies have been conducted on children with autism. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 139 Children with autism have larger brains within large ventricles. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 139 Symptoms typical of autism (e.g. lack of empathy and social skills) are never seen in cerebellar disease. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 140 Perhaps the main cause of autism is a dysfunctional mirror-neuron system. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 163 Only humans, as far as we know, can use metaphor and analogy. 23
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 163 Flexible, recursive syntax is found only in human language. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 163 Two topics in brain research always seem to attract geniuses and crackpots. One is consciousness and the other is the question of how language evolved. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 164 Richard Dawkins has pointed out they are numerous creatures in nature with eyes at all stages of complexity. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 165 Simplest possible light sensing mechanism -- a patch of light sensitive cells on the outer skin. 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 165 Darwin's contemporary Alfred Russell Wallace, who independently discovered the principle of natural selection. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 165 Founding father of modern linguistic science, Noam Chomsky. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 165 A good example of emergence is the taste of salt, formed by combining the pungent, greenish, poisonous gas chlorine with the shiny, light metal sodium. Neither of these elements has anything salt-like about it. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 175 Performing the translation between visual appearance, sound representation in auditory cortex, and sequences of muscle twitches in Broca's area almost certainly involve the activation of circuits would mirror-neuron-like properties. The inferior parietal lobules (IPL), rich in mirror neurons, is ideally suited for this role.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 176 Semantics -- roughly speaking, the meaning of a sentence. 11
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 176 Although we know that Wernicke's area and parts of the temporo-parieto-occipital (TPO) junction, including the angular gyrus, are critically involved in semantics, we have no idea how neurons in these areas actually do their job. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 176 The manner in which neural circuitry embodies meaning is one of the great unsolved mysteries of neuroscience. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 178 The IPL (including the angular gyrus) -- strategically located between the touch, vision, and hearing parts of the brain -- evolved originally for cross modal abstraction. 2
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 178 The upper part of the IPL, the supramarginal gyrus, is also unique to humans, and is directly involved in the production, comprehension, and imitation of complex skills. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 181 Syntax -- the aspect of language that is most unequivocally human. 3
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 181 Syntactic structure gives human language its enormous range and flexibility. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 181 Exaptation principle -- the notion that adaptation to one specific function becomes assimilated into another, entirely different function. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 183 Two key human abilities -- language and abstraction. 2
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 183 Link between language and sequential thinking, or reasoning in logical steps. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 183 Thinking involves, among other things, the ability to engage in open-ended symbol manipulation in your brain following certain rules. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 188 The one aspect that makes the deep grammatical structure in humans unique is recursive embedding. 5
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 188 When people say that deep structure and syntactic organization are normal in Wernicke's aphasia, they are usually referring to the more obvious aspects, such as the ability to generate a fully formed sentence employing nouns, prepositions, and conjunctions but carrying no meaningful content. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 189 Wernick's aphasia example, "John and Mary went to the joyful bank and paid hat." 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 189 The speech output of Wernicke's aphasics isn't entirely normal even in its syntactic structure. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 189 In the speech of Wernicke's aphasics, in addition to the absence of meaning, the most striking an obvious loss is recursive embedding. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 189 Wernicke's aphasics speak in loosely strung together phrases using conjunctions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 189 Recursion may turn out to be a property of Wernicke's area, and indeed may be a general property of many brain functions. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 189 Language capacity evolved through natural selection over 200,000 years. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 All mammals have three tiny bones -- malleus, stapes, and incus -- inside the middle ear (mammals have them but they are reptile ancestors don't). 1
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 Comparative anatomists, embryologists, and paleontologists discovered that the middle ear bones evolved from the back of the jawbone of the reptile. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 The mammalian jaw has a single bone, the mandible, whereas the reptilian ancestors have three. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 Reptiles, unlike mammals, frequently consume enormous prey rather than frequent small meals. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 The reptile jaw is used exclusively for swallowing, not chewing, and due to reptiles' slow metabolic rate, the unchewed food in the stomach can take weeks to break down and digest. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 The reptile kind of eating requires a large, flexible, multihinged jaw. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 Reptiles lie low on the ground with their limbs sprawled outward, swinging their neck and head close to the ground while they sniff for prey. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 For reptiles, the three bones of the jaw lying on the ground allowed reptiles to transmit sounds made by other animals' nearby footsteps to the vicinity of the ear. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 190 As reptiles evolved into mammals, they raised themselves up from a sprawling position, which allowed two of the three jaw bones to become progressively assimilated into the middle ear, being taken over entirely for hearing airborne sounds and giving up the chewing function altogether. 0
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 192 How does the human brain respond to beauty? 2
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 200 Gestalt psychologists were good at pointing out laws of perception.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 201 the log grouping was discovered by Gestalt psychologists around the turn of the 20th century.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 205 looking at the big object of which only fragments of visible. Many cells fire and parallel to signal the different fragments.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 205 Synchrony tells higher brain centers that the fragments belong to a single object.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 205 synchrony of Liles the spike trains to be encoded in such a way that a coherent output emerges, which is relayed to the emotional core of the brain.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 206 there are back projections from the amygdala and the and of the brain structures such as the nucleus accumbens to almost every visual area in the hierarchy of visual processing.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 206 the the shift effect relates to how your brain responds to exaggerated stimuli.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 209 The relevance of the peak shift law to caricatures and to the human body is obvious.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 212 of the 30 or so visual processing areas in the human brain, a few especially V4 are devoted primarily to color.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 213 The principal of ultranormal stimuli may be relevant not just to art but to the quirks of aesthetic preference such as whom you are struck attracted to.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 236 metaphor and language is well known, but it's not widely appreciated that it's also used extensively in visual art.
Ramachandran; Tell-Tale Brain 236 multiple layers of metaphor and meaning in sculpture.
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