Oliver Sacks; Musicophilia
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Sacks; Musicophilia 0 Listening to music is not just auditory and emotional, it is motoric as well;    "We listen to music with our muscles," as Nietzsche wrote.
Sacks; Musicophilia 32 Some people can scarcely hold a tune in their heads,    and others can hear an entire symphony in their minds    with a detail and vividness little short of actual perception. 32
Sacks; Musicophilia 33 Sacks's father    carried miniature orchestral scores in his pocket    and could "play" a musical score vividly in his mind. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 33 Professional musicians possess what most of us would regard as remarkable powers of music neural imagery. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 33 Beethoven continued to compose years after he had become totally deaf. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 33 It is possible that musical imagery is intensified by deafness.    With the removal of normal auditory input,    the auditory cortex may become hypersensitive,    with heightened powers of musical imagery    and sometimes even auditory hallucinations. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 33 Some people who become blind    may have heightened visual imagery. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 33 Composers of enormously intricate music    must employ highly abstract forms of musical thought,    such as the intellectual complexity    that distinguishes Beethoven's later works. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 34 Imagining music can activate the auditory cortex almost as strongly as listening to it. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 34 Imagining music also stimulates the motor cortex. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 35 One musician put a favorite Mozart disk record on the turntable, listened to it with great pleasure, and then went to turn it over to play the other side -- only to find that he had never played it in the first place. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 36 Deliberate, conscious, voluntary mental imagery    involves not only auditory and motor cortex,    but regions of the frontal cortex    involved in choosing and planning. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 41 Rudolfo Llinás, a neuroscientist at New York University, is especially interested in the interactions of the cortex and the thalamus,    which he postulates to underlie consciousness or self,    and their interactions with the motor nuclei beneath the cortex, especially the basal ganglia, which he sees as crucial to the production of action patterns. 5
Sacks; Musicophilia 42 Musical imagery requires an exceedingly sensitive and refined system for perceiving and remembering music.    These systems are as sensitive to stimulation from internal sources -- memories, emotions, associations -- as to external music.     A tendency to spontaneous activity and repetition seems to be built into the musical imagery system    in a way that has no analog in other perceptual systems. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 43 All of us, to varying degrees, have music in our heads. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 44 Musical image it can become pathological -- a catchy tune -- forcing it to fire repetitive or autonomously as a tic or a seizure. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 45 With incessant repetition, a tune soon loses its charm. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 48 As one woman developed Parkinson's disease, she became subject to repetitive, irritating little melodies or rhythms in her head, to which she compulsively moved her fingers and toes. 3
Sacks; Musicophilia 48 Some people with Tourette's syndrome may become hooked by a sound or a word or a noise and repeat it, or echo it, to themselves, for weeks at a time. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 49 Involuntary repetition of movements, sounds, or words tends to occur in people with Tourette's or OCD. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 49 Automatic or compulsive internal repetition of musical phrases is almost universal -- the clearest sign of the overwhelming and at times helpless sensitivity of our brains to music. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 51 There are attributes of musical imagery and musical memory that have no equivalents in the vision, and this may reflect the fundamentally different way in which the brain treats music and vision. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 52 Inherent tendency is to repetition in music. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 52 Our poetry, our ballads, our songs are full of repetition. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 52 Every piece of classical music has its repeat marks or variations on the theme. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 53 Omnipresence of annoyingly catchy tunes, the brainworms that arrive unbidden, catchy tunes that may be nothing more than advertisements for toothpaste, but are neurologically, completely irresistible. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 57 Musical hallucinations are associated with activity in several parts of the brain -- the temporal lobes, the frontal lobes, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum -- all parts of the brain normally activated in the perception of real music. 4
Sacks; Musicophilia 60 Tonal intervals that are the building blocks of music. 3
Sacks; Musicophilia 66 Wilder Penfield and his colleagues at the Montréal Neurological Institute had written famously in the 1950s and early 60s of experimental seizures, in which patients with temporal lobe epilepsy might hear old songs or tunes from the past. 6
Sacks; Musicophilia 66 Temporal lobe epilepsy is only one of many possible causes of musical hallucination and, indeed, a very rare one. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 75 Tinnitus -- (hissing, like steam coming out of a radiator) (a low humming sound, like the refrigerator or something in the kitchen) 9
Sacks; Musicophilia 86 Rodolfo Llinás has written of the incessant activity in the nuclei of the basal ganglia, and how they seem to act is a continuous, random motor pattern noise generator. 11
Sacks; Musicophilia 86 Something may start randomly -- a tic, for example, bursting out of overexcited basal ganglia. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 86 Musical hallucinations draw up on the musical experience and memories of a lifetime. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 88 Fragmentary musical patterns may be emitted or released from the basal ganglia as raw music, without any emotional coloring or associations. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 106 After a left hemisphere stroke,    a person can develop profound forms of    rhythm deafness    without tone deafness. 18
Sacks; Musicophilia 106 After some right hemisphere strokes,    a patient may develop    tone deafness    without rhythm deafness. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 106 Infants at six months    can really detect all rhythmic variations,    but by 12 months that range has narrowed, albeit sharpened. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 106 Infants at 12 months    can more easily detect types of rhythms to which they have previously been exposed;    they learn and internalize a set or rhythms for their culture. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 106 Adults find it harder to perceive    "foreign" rhythmic distinctions. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 108 Total amusia -- melodies lose their musical quality,    and may acquire a nonmusical, disagreeable character. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 109 Amusia may sometimes be associated with migraine.    With a brilliant, scintillating zigzag expanding in half of the visual field,    the typical zigzags aura during attacks of migraine,    an amusia may be experienced    in which music seems to decompose into a disconcerting racket,    along with an unpleasant metallic reverberation. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 117 In 1990, Isabelle Peretz and her colleagues in Montréal devised a special battery of tests for evaluating amusia,    and they have been able, in many cases, to identify the broad neural correlates    of certain types of amusia. 8
Sacks; Musicophilia 117 There are two basic categories of musical perception,    one involving the recognition of melodies,    the other the perception of rhythm or time intervals. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 117 Impairments of melody usually go with the right hemisphere lesions. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 117 Representation of rhythm    is widespread and robust and involved not only the left hemisphere,    but many subcortical systems in the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and other areas. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 117 There are many distinctions in musical impairments;    some individuals can appreciate rhythm    but not meter,    and others have the reverse problem. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 118 There may be an impairment of the ability to perceive dissonance (e.g. the discordant sound produced by a major second), something that is normally recognized and reacted to even in infants. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 118 Patients with extensive damage to the parahippocampal cortex were able to judge consonant music to be pleasant,    and to judge music as happy or sad,    but they did not show the normal response to dissonant music, which they rated as "slightly pleasant." 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 118 There can be a partial or total loss of the feeling or emotions normally evoked by music, even though perception of music is unimpaired. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 129 Absolute Pitch 11
Sacks; Musicophilia 129 The precision of absolute pitch varies,    but it is estimated that most people with it can identify upwards of 70 tones in the middle region of the auditory range,    Each of the 70 tones has, for them, a unique and characteristic quality    that distinguishes it absolutely    from any other note. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 131 When people with absolute pitch    hear a familiar piece of music    played in the wrong key,    they often become agitated or disturbed. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 131 Transposing music from one key to another,    though effortless for some musicians,    can be difficult for others. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 132 Transposing a piece of music,    for someone with absolute pitch,    can be analogous to painting a picture with all the wrong colors. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 132 Absolute pitch is not necessarily of much importance even to musicians --    Mozart had it,    but Wagner and Schumann lacked it. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 135 Absolute pitch is of special interest    because it exemplifies a whole realm of perception of qualia, with a little inherent connection to musicality    or anything else,    and because it shows how genes and experience can interact in its production. 3
Sacks; Musicophilia 135 Among musicians,    absolute pitch is commoner in those who have had musical training from an early age. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 136 There is a critical period    for the development of absolute pitch,    before the age of eight or so -- roughly the same age at which children find it much more difficult to learn the phonemes of another language    (and thus to speak a second language    with a native accent). 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 137 In musicians with absolute pitch,    there was an exaggerated asymmetry between the volumes of the left and right planum temporale,    structures of the brain that are important for the perception of speech and music. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 141 In 1851, Alfonzo Corti, an Italian physiologist, discovered the complex sensory structure that we now call the organ of Corti,    lying on the basilar membrane of the cochlea    and containing about 3500 inner hair cells, the ultimate auditory receptors. 4
Sacks; Musicophilia 144 In the brain, the cochlea's output, all eight or ten octaves of audible sound, are mapped tonotopically onto the auditory cortex. 3
Sacks; Musicophilia 177 Relationship between music and color -- for some people once sensory experience may instantly and automatically provoke another. There is simply an instant conjoining of sensations. 33
Sacks; Musicophilia 178 Mental imagery ability of some people to visualize scenes, faces, and so on in vivid, veridical detail. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 179 Patient suddenly became totally colorblind following a head injury. He lost the ability to see or even imagine color. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 254 Music and Movement -- Rhythm 75
Sacks; Musicophilia 262 Listening to music    or imagining it,    even without any overt movement or keeping time,    activates motor cortex and subcortical motor systems.    The imagination of music,    of rhythm,    may be as potent, neurally,    as actually listening to it. 8
Sacks; Musicophilia 262 Keeping time,    physically and mentally,    depends on interactions between the auditory and the dorsal premotor cortex --    and it is only in the human brain    that a functional connection    between these two cortical areas exists. Crucially, these sensory and motor activations are precisely integrated with each other. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 262 Rhythm,     the integration of sound and movement,    can play a great role in coordinating and invigorating    basic locomotor movement. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 266 In all societies,    a primary function of music    is collective and communal,    to bring and bind people together. 4
Sacks; Musicophilia 266 The collective binding of people    is accomplished by rhythm --    not only heard but internalized,    identically in all who are present. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 266 Rhythm    turns listeners into participants,    making listening active and motoric,    and synchronizes the brains and minds    of all who participate. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 266 It is very difficult to remain detached,   to resist being drawn into the rhythm    of chanting or dancing. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 267 There is evidence that religious practices began    with communal chanting and dancing,   often of an ecstatic kind    and not infrequently, culminating    in states of trance. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 267 The almost irresistible power of rhythm    is evident in many contexts --    in marching, it serves both to entrain and coordinate movement    and to whip up a collective    and perhaps martial excitement. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 268 We see the almost irresistible power of rhythm,    not only with military music and war drums,    but also with the slow, solemn rhythm of a funeral march. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 268 Rhythm    and its entrainment of movement    (and often on emotion),    may well have had a crucial cultural and economic function    in human evolution,    bringing people together,    producing a sense of collectivity and community. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 269 Neuroscientists sometimes speak of the "binding problem."       Binding in the nervous system    is accomplished by rapid, synchronized firing of nerve cells    in different parts of the brain. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 274 Parkinson's disease is usually called a "movement disorder,"    though when it is severe    it is not only movement that is affected,    but the flow of perception, thought, and feeling as well. 5
Sacks; Musicophilia 274 In Parkinson's disease there is not a smooth flow of movement, but brokenness, jerkiness, starts and stops. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 277 A fundamental problem in Parkinson's disease    is the inability to initiate movement spontaneously;    Parkinsonian patients are always getting stuck or "frozen." 3
Sacks; Musicophilia 279 While music alone can unlock people with Parkinson's disease,    and movement or exercise of any kind is also beneficial,    an ideal combination of music and movement    is provided by dance. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 281 People with Huntington's disease, who sooner or later develop intellectual and behavioral problems    in addition to chorea,    may also benefit from dancing --    and indeed, from any activity or sport    with a regular rhythm of "kinetic melody." 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 312 In the past,    the neuroscience of music has concentrated almost exclusively on the neural mechanisms by which we perceive pitch,    tonal intervals,    melody,    and rhythm.     Yet music is both emotional and intellectual. 31
Sacks; Musicophilia 314 Temporary extinction    of emotional response to music    can occur after a concussion. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 315 There have been a number of antidotal reports    of people who, following strokes,    have lost interest in music,     finding it emotionally flat,    while apparently retaining all of their musical perceptions and skills. 1
Sacks; Musicophilia 315 Occasionally there is not so much a complete loss of musical emotion    as a change in its valence or direction,    so that music that previously delighted    may now arouse an unpleasant feeling,    sometimes so intense as to produce anger, disgust, or simply aversion. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 317 Isabelle Peretz thinks that there must be a particular functional architecture    underlying the emotional interpretation of music. 2
Sacks; Musicophilia 317 Several lines of research have implicated a very extensive network    involving both cortical and subcortical regions    as the basis for emotional responses to music. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 317 The fact that a person may have not only a selective loss of musical emotion,    but an equally selective    sudden musicophilia,    implies that the emotional response to music    may have a very specific physiological basis of its own,    one which is distinct from that of emotional responsiveness in general. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia 322 For many people, the emotions induced by music    may be overwhelming. 5
Sacks; Musicophilia 322 A number of people    who are intensely sensitive to music    cannot have it on as background when they work.    They must attend to music completely    or turn it off,    for it is too powerful to allow them to focus on other mental activities. 0
Sacks; Musicophilia