Schneck & Berger; Music Effect
Book Page   Topic    
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 27 Music has power.á It can change attitudes, relax or energize the body, animate the spirit, influence cognitive development, enhance the body's self-healing mechanisms.
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 27 Anatomical systems and physiological processes that comprise the 'me' of what is inherently human function are reflected within the content and systems of music. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 27 Although all the arts (poetry, painting, drama, dance, etc.) generally affect us in the same way as music does, the effect of music is stronger, swifter, more compelling and infallible. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 28 Humans create music; it is a metaphor for human experience, encompassing the entire spectrum of human emotions. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 28 Music is the abstraction and transformation of human emotional and physical energies into acoustic energies that reflect, parallel, and resume in synchrony with the physiological system. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 28 Music is the mirror of human physical and emotional energy,áá transformed into sound. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 28 Music exists wherever there is humanity on this planet. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 29 Why is "Happy Birthday" sung rather than recited?á It is because words alone do not adequately convey the emotional energy behind the thought. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 29 In evolutionary time, the voice was perhaps the first instrument to express human conditions such as needs, desires, fears, pain, joy, excitement etc. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 29 Primitive percussive and blowing implements were the original instruments -- hollow bones or plant stalks, sticks and tree limbs, hollow or skin-covered logs, bells, rattles, and rituals. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 29 Evolution of rhythmic, tone-linked,á purposefully and systematized incantations, expressing human needs and feelings. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 29 Did musical form of expression predate the formalization of language communication? 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 29 Vocal chanting was abbreviated and contracted into short rhythmic spurts of localized grunts and calls that evolve into speech. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 30 Music as a noncognitive form of communication.á A person needs to know absolutely nothing about music to instantly respond to and benefit from it. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 30 Music requires no semantic interpretations of its syntax.á It is immediately understood. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 30 Music is a human-made event.á It is the single most abstract form of self-expression, speaking the emotional language of the human "me". 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 30 Music makes immediate sense, reaching directly into the emotional brain to convey or echo moves, sensations, and feelings. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 30 Music is a human being's first language.á Words are inadequate to describe the musical experience.á It can only be experienced. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 30 Music is the universal language of all humanity. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 31 Six elements of music -- rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, dynamics, form. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 34 Rhythm -- periodicity; tendency of an event to occur at regular intervals. 3
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 34 Melody -- linking of one pitch to another in a curvilinear relationship. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 34 Harmony -- simultaneous compounding of pitches one on top of another, sounded at the same time to resonate together. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 35 Dynamics -- energy inherent in sound, embedded in the amplitude of the sound wave. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 35 Timbre -- texture to a sound, differentiate between various instrumental and vocal qualities. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 35 Form -- and overall, operational, systematic, structural configuration. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 52 Sound power level, db 17
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 54 Resonance 2
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 55 Sympathetic vibrations -- physiological sympathetic vibrations to music. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 57 Human ear is able to discriminate some 400,000 sounds that involve different combinations of pitch, loudness, and timbre. 2
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 77 Endocrine system starts mainly in the brain, where the pineal gland and the hypothalamus are located, then works its way down through the pituitary gland (hypophysis),thyroid and four parathyroids, two adrenal glands, etc.. 20
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 78 Several of the neurotransmitters, hormones, and antibodies have been shown to be secreted in response to certain types of musical stimulation. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 79 Corresponding to the gene in the biological realm, there is the meme and the socio-cultural dimension. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 80 Five basic Gestalt laws of perceptual organization of sensory information. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 80 Gestalt law of proximity. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 81 Gestalt law of directionality. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 81 Gestalt law of similarity. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 81 Gestalt law of closure. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 81 Gestalt law of Pragnanz. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Constraint limitations in processing sensory information. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Sound pressure level between 0 and 120 db. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Harmonic dissonance and consonance. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Dissonance derives from interference patterns (sonic beats) that originate when two tones close in frequency, but not identical, are sounded together. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Dissonance, peaking at beat frequencies around 24 Hz (comparable to the "flicker speed" for vision) is unpleasant to the typical listener, consonance being much more agreeable to the auditory system. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 Tempering of the musical scale has evolved as a way of minimizing the unpleasant phenomenon of dissonance. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 82 The current 12 tone chromatic scale contains the maximum number of equally spaced notes containing the minimum number of this in a frequency ratios between any two of these notes. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 The number of dissonant intervals, expressed as a percentage of the total number of intervals in the scale, is the least possible. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 The actual note-to-note subdivisions of the musical scale are constrained by the resolution capabilities of the human auditory system (Gestalt law of proximity). 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 The equal spacing of the notes of the musical scale is designed to make it convenient to transpose and modulate from one key to another. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 All sensory perception is constrained by the ability of the corresponding sensory modality to resolve the adequate stimuli. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 Information transmission and processing rates 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 Most neurons fire at maximum rates of about 400 impulses per second. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 A single nerve trunk (e.g. the auditory nerve) contains about 30,000 total sensory nerve fibers. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 83 At 400 hundred impulses per second a 30 thousand nerve-fiber trunk would produce an information flow into the CNS of about 12 million bits per second. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 84 Interneurons of the reticular activating system (RAS) are very short; this allows it to function as a sieve, continuously sifting through a wealth of incoming data. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 84 Only those sensory inputs that the RAS deems to be essential, unusual, perceived-to-be-dangerous, and/or in some sense 'action provoking' are selected as appropriate for further processing and forwarding to the higher levels of the brain. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 84 Filtered by the RAS, only a few hundred stimuli, at most, actually make it through to cerebral regions above the brainstem. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 85 Autistic children --ááá 'slow learners',ááá information comes in faster than they can process it;áááá state of confusion may result.ááá In engineering signal theory, these are called dropouts or aliasing errors;ááá sampling rate too lowáá áfor a rapidly-changing incident stimulus. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 86 Hierarchy of three pathways in seriesáá áthrough which the information passesáá áon its afferent journey through the CNS. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 86 Reticular formation --ááá first level of information processing. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 86 Primary function of the reticular formationáá áis to prevent information overload áááby acting as a preliminary coarse sieve or filteráá áthat serves to avoid innundating the brain with information. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 86 Thalamus -- sensory reception center;áááá evaluates incoming information;áá once classified, immediately dispatched to two generic places:ááá (1) sensory regions of the cerebral cortex,ááá (2) the limbic system, where it undergoes immediate, subconscious perception to effect instantaneous responses to potential threats. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 87 Sensory data the thalamus has classified as potential threats passes in series pathwaysááá first through the amygdalaááá and second through the hippocampus. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 88 If the amygdala signifies that all is well, information filtered by the RAS,ááá classified by the thalamus,ááá and evaluated and prioritized by the limbic systemáá ápasses on through the hippocampusáá áto the cognitive regions of the cerebral cortex. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 89 Brain attempts to economize on the utilization of space for storage:ááá (1) it stores ingredients, not products,ááá (2) it draws upon fractal principles to create complicated geometric shapes and configurations,ááá (3) it discards any and all information for which it has no perceived need. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 98 All animal behavior is driven by emotion.á Humans instinctively react first, and think later. 9
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 98 Survival instinct is pervasive in all living creatures, and is the most fundamental of all human drives. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 105 Physiological process called 'facilitation', or "memory of sensation". 7
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 105 Anatomical remodeling capability known as plasticity. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 105 Conditioned reflex network. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 105 Habit 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 109 Humans initially respond sub-cognitively,ááá intuitively,ááá and spontaneously to sensory stimulation, by means of genetically inscribed,ááá emotionally driven instincts. 4
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 109 Instinct to survive in the face of perceived threats is the engine that propels physiological function. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 109 Thought (based on the cognitive awareness of internal and external events) is a luxury afforded as an "after"-thought, where the events enter consciousness long after (as much as 500 ms) a response to the event has already taken place instinctively. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 109 Any given event might never enter (via the hippocampus) the conscious arena, but rather remain in the subconscious memory of the amygdala permanently. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 109 Fear derived from a perceived threat to survival is the underlying emotion driving human behavior. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 109 The human system can be thrust into a perpetual state of fear, and survival behaviors will be manifest as norms.á Such systems will routinely operate in fight-or-flight mode, characterized by an internal hyperactivity. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 111 Pathological fear -- once fear takes hold, it can escalate, become automatic, and even spiral out of control in response to similar or related situations. (Diagram) 2
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 113 Schematic representation of fear spiral. (diagram) 2
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 117 Physiological entrainment 4
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 118 Entrainment -- body becomes synchronized with the forcing function, allowing itself to be driven consciously or subconsciously. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 120 A most natural response of the human body to music is a synchronization of anatomical movements and other physiological/psychological functions with musical rhythms.á 2
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 121 When people listen to music, various aspects of their body rhythms display a dynamic embodiment of the temporal structure inherent in the musical rhythms. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 121 Studies of the electrical activity of muscle function show that auditory cues (driving functions) can arouse and raise the excitability of spinal motor neurons.á This excitability is mediated by auditory-motor neural circuitry at the reticulospinal level. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 121 Auditory cues can capture one's attention.á Such attentiveness results in brain waves becoming synchronized with the beat frequency.á This synchronized brain activity seems to establish a "pleasing resonance" that catches the entire range of human emotions. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 121 Researchers have discovered that synchronous firing of neurons in the brain followed a subject's making a deliberate effort to pay attention to a particular sensory stimulus, while ignoring all other distractions. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 121 Resonance phenomenon following entrainment could be the brain's way of amplifying the volume of brain signals representing behaviorally relevant stimuli.á Such amplification would boost the intensity of these particular stimuli above the level of surrounding 'noise'. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 121 Entrainment, leading to brain-wave synchronization, leading to resonance, leading to amplification, might be the brain's way of paying attention to a particular stimulus, over and above surrounding distractions. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 122 Cerebral neurons excited by specific attributes of attended stimuli can conspicuously synchronize their activity in the gamma (40-90 Hz) range of the EEG, indicating extremely strong brain activity. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 122 If music is familiar, preferred tempi seem to have a simple harmonic relationship to the individual's normal heart rate (70-100 cycles per minute). 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 131 Performance anxiety or "stage fright". 9
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 131 Reticular activating system (RAS) can be biased, like controlling the mesh size of a sieve, to selectively determine what information gets passed on to the brain for further processing. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 131 Many of the effects of the RAS can be attributed to music's effect on how sensory inputs are handled by the reticular activating system and the brain. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 131 In acting like a sieve, the RAS is biased to allow to pass through it information that is perceived to be threatening and/or which is perceived to be otherwise of some interest to the central nervous system. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 132 By regulating the sieve size, the RAS can be biased to control its sensitivity to various threshold stimuli. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 132 Exercises such as meditation, praying, chanting, guided imagery, and music therapy, acting through mechanisms of entrainment, can bias the RAS, shifting its threshold sensitivities one way or the other, to let more or less information pass through to higher centers. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 132 Different states of one's awareness about the world could result from the hierarchy of levels at which sensory information is filtered out. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 132 In scientific studies, music that elicits pleasant emotions causes the listener to display increased cerebral alpha-rhythm (8-12 Hz, at about 50 Áv on the EEG) that is associated with a relaxed state of physiological tranquility. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 132 Power spectral analysis of brain wave activity of infants shows increased activity in the delta wave (1-5 Hz, at 20-200 Áv) and theta-wave (4-7 Hz) regions when processing music as opposed to verbal inputs. Delta wave activity is associated with deep sleep, theta waves with various states of drowsiness. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 133 Music has a profound influence on how information tracks through the brain. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 133 Music is able to alter the information route through the brain, from amygdala-centered neural networks associated with emotional fear responses, to hippocampus-centered networks associated with more rational, cognitive responses. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 133 Through mechanisms of entrainment that involve biasing of neural networks, music can affect processes of sensory integration. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 133 Music's effect on sensory integration refers to how the brain organizes and interprets (in accordance with the Gestalt laws) inputs arriving simultaneously from multiple sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, heat, pain (nociceptive), etc.. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 136 Music as therapeutic is distinctly different from music as therapy. 3
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 136 Therapeutic music is a diversionary therapeutic succour, for temporary physical and psychological reasons. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 136 Music therapy is aimed at accomplishing long-lasting, specific anatomical and physiological changes; reparation of particular human conditions. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 137 Cytokines for the immune system -- hormones for the endocrine system -- neurotransmitters for the nervous system. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 140 Neuroscientists Rodolfo Llinas produced an actual humming (background signal) of constant electrical impulses, which fire rhythmically across synapses in the brain, mostly at about 40 Hz in the gamma range of the EEG. 3
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 140 Neurons entrain to each other's rhythms via synchronized action potentials as they communicate with one another. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 140 Neuronal activities appear to be contingent upon coherent rhythmicity and resonance. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 140 Oscillation in the gamma range of 40 Hz of neuronal rhythms in the brain, when amplified in the laboratory, actually admitted hum-drone audible sounds. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 154 Although the exact mechanisms by which the body entrains various rhythms, rhythmic patterns play an important role in maintaining the brain's attention to acoustic information. 14
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 161 Speech inflection is a form of emotional vocal communication. 7
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 161 In spoken language, vocal intensities change, attitudes permeate within inflection, pitches rise and fall, and one intuitively seems to comprehend meanings, regardless of whether or not words are recognized ("reading between the lines", so to speak) 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 161 Changes in tonality, volume, and phrasing constitute prosodic features that are often produced without conscious intention. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 161 Prosody and inflection might be instinctive and culturally dependent. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 161 In an evolutionary sense, human calls developed as symbolic communicators of emotion and feelings. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 162 Extended vocal incantations as pre-language -- humans first language. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 162 Vocalizations became extended and amplified through various instruments, such as hollow reed flutes, animal horns, and other vibration-producing wind and percussion instruments. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 162 Cerebral information processing, including the Gestalt laws. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 162 Two of the basic human calls -- laughter and sobbing. 0
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 163 Human calls include: screaming with fright; groaning in disapproval; sighing as an expression of sadness, weariness, fatigue, or relief; crying with pain, fear, and/or remorse. 1
Schneck & Berger; Music Effect 163 Severe damage to the amygdala impairs a victim's ability to react emotionally. 0