Whittle; Cosmology, History and Nature of Our Universe
Book Lecture   Topic    
Whittle; Cosmology 2 Hubble Deep Field, a small patch of sky started studying by the Hubble space telescope in 1995. 3000 galaxies some of which are 12 billion light years away.
Whittle; Cosmology 2 living things are enormously more complex than astronomical objects.
Whittle; Cosmology 2 if things shown in proportion to their complexes the, Galaxie is whether the dim light bulbs, but your brain would be a beacon visible across the whole universe.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the universe is isotropic.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 radio Galaxie is several billion light years away are distributed very uniformly.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the microwave background is incredibly uniform, varied by less than 0.01% from place to place.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the universe is homogeneous on larger scales.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the universe as the neural quality:: smooth on scales above 200 million light years and love the scale below.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the cosmological principle states that the universe looks the same statistically from all locations burst of this simply means averaging over large enough volume.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the cosmological principle implies that the universe has no center or edge.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 in the 1950s, seeing galaxies sufficiently distant was very difficult.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 my the mid-1960s, the data gave clear results that there were more faint radio galaxies that expected for uniform density, suggesting there were more radio galaxies in earlier times.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 moderate deep surveys show that quasars were more common in the past.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 cosmic expansion has changed over time. Distant galaxies appear some systematically younger than nearby ones. Galaxies were less clustered in the past, and the million-year-old universe had no stars and galaxies but was just a hot, then, glowing gas.
Whittle; Cosmology 3 the universe clearly "evolves"
Whittle; Cosmology 4 This Stuff of the Universe
Whittle; Cosmology 4 five fundamental cosmic constituents: atomic matter, white, neutrinos, Darden, and dark energy.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 absolute zero temperature: -459F, -273C, 0 K (Kelvin)
Whittle; Cosmology 4 neutrinos will will matter at all.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 the Big Bang made huge numbers of neutrinos, about as many as photons.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 neutrinos play an important role in the first second of the universe.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 we know that dark matter exists because the gravitational effects.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Dark matter forms giant Sears (called payloads) around galaxies that provide the framework into which atomic matter can fall to make the galaxies.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 dark matter remains spread out, so it's density at any given location is very low.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Overall, dark matter outweighs atomic matter of 6 to 1, making up 23% of the total.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Dark energy was the most recent cosmic constituent to be discovered, in 1998.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 The existence of dark energy is revealed by its gravitational effect.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Dark energy makes the universe's expansion speed up.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 The exact nature of dark energy is still unknown, but our best guess is that it's a tiny residual energy associated with space itself. For this reason it is sometimes called a "vacuum energy"
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Despite the dark energy is low density, it ultimately comprises about 73% of the total.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Overall, the universe was denser in the past.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Matter thins out with cosmic expansion, while dark energy does not (it is a property of space).
Whittle; Cosmology 4 The relative amount of the five constituents changes, leading to three great eras: the radiation, matter, and dark energy eras where the name gives the dominant constituent during that era.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 all five component of the different forms of a single entity: mass-energy.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Because c2 is so big, you can think of matter as extremely concentrated energy.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 a crucial point about is the mass or energy is that they generate gravity, whose energy is make it.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 amazingly, the total energy of the universe arms to zero.
Whittle; Cosmology 4 Inflation provides a mechanism to split nothing in the huge amounts of positive mass energy held together by an equal amount of negative gravitational energy.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 Universe is about 13.7 billion years old.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 Change occurs very rapidly at the beginning.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 Big Bang's expansion is launched by a mechanism called "inflation"
Whittle; Cosmology 5 Inflation starts with BC region containing a special kind of dense vacuum.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 a Wednesdays in itself makes gravity, the region naturally falls out, expanding all by itself.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 A huge region of expanding dense vacuum is generated.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 When inflation ends, the vacuum energy is transformed to an immensely hot broth of every kind of subatomic particles. Our universe has now been launched.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 Several things happen in the first millisecond.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the forces of nature strong, electromagnetic, week, and gravity take on their current forms.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the character of these forces depends on temperature, and in the early universe it is thought that they were joined as a single force.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 as a universal cold, they each took on their own identity, with the final separation of the weak and electromagnetic forces occurring near a 10th of a nanosecond.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the first millisecond also saw the creation of matter.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 initially, universal is filled with an incredibly hot, dense gas of quarks, protons, electrons, and neutrinos.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 near 10 s, it was cool enough for two combined to make protons, and I broke kinds, neutrons, and anti-new dream and and I neutrons.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 near 100 s, the protons and antiprotons, and the neutrinos and anti-neutrinos, almost all annihilated.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 fortunately, a one in a bid in excess of protons over antiprotons left in matter from which you and I are now made.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 at a few seconds, electrons and anti-electrons and mildly, leading protons as the dominant constituent of the universe.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 although the first second seemed very short to us, it is an immense track of time to nature, which functions amazingly fast.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 when the universe in about one minute old, the conditions everywhere was similar to those at the center centers of present-day stars right for hydrogen fusion.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 between one in three minutes, a quarter of the conflict hydrogen was converted into helium.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 around 60,000 years, light and matter are roughly equal densities.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 lights density drops faster than matters, so we passed from the radiation error to the matter era at the 60,000 year time
Whittle; Cosmology 5 at the 60,000 year transition the gravity of radiation and matter pullback, slowing the expansion speed
Whittle; Cosmology 5 .at 400,000 years, universe colds past 3000 Callan, below which electrons remain attached to protons, and atoms finally form.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 we witnessed this transition as the microwave background the light ways from the hot, glowing gas are stretched by cosmic expansion and arrive as microwaves.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 an important feature of the microwave background is a slight hatchets, which reveals a slight lumpiness that ultimately grows the form galaxies.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the lump sum primarily of dark matter, but the glowing atomic guest bounces in and out of the regions, making sound ways, which we see as prejudice.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 scientists listen to this prime primordial sound and learn how and cosmology of cosmologists use it to measure many properties of the universe.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the expansion of slightly denser regions is a little slower than average, so that over time the lumpiness grows.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 after about 100 million years, the densest regions all their expansion and began collapsing.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 by about 200 million years, all across the universe, pockets of dark and atomic matter collapse, and it's in the center is that the first stars are born.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 these first stars are huge, Ms. Short lives, and Diane supernova explosions.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the supernova explosions released newly made chemical elements.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 from generation to generation, stars continue to enrich their surroundings with heavy elements.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 by about 1 billion years, the first infant galaxies have formed.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 this. Involves frequent galaxy collisions, prodigious starboard, and supernova explosions.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 these first infant galaxies are currently the most distant objects visible with the days biggest telescopes.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 about 5 billion years ago, galaxies began to mature into the kind we see around us today.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the sun and solar system form in the disk of a young Milky Way galaxy.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the galaxy with gets more defined, as galaxies flow into and then down to the filaments, forming galaxies cluster where they intersect.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 the universe's expansion chains is from slowing down to speeding up as the effects of dark energy began to be felt.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 looking into the future as the billions of years past we're again for an ever lonely universe.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 Alex is continually get farther away, moving faster.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 as they pass lightspeed, they become forever invisible to us crossing an event horizon"
Whittle; Cosmology 5 around 100 billion years from now only all local ball of stars will be visible, formed by the merger of the Milky Way and if you neighbor galaxies.
Whittle; Cosmology 5 viewed optimistically, we're lucky to live relatively early in the life of the universe, when a rich cosmic history is still visible to us and cosmology is still a viable subject.
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