Adam Zeman; Consciousness: A User's Guide
Book Page   Topic    
Zeman; Consciousness 48 Large neurons are among the largest cells in the body.
Zeman; Consciousness 48 Projection neurons can be as much as a meter in length. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 48 Interneurons in the brain or spinal cord; less than a millimeter. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 48 Projection neurons are often 'pyramidal'. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 48 Purkinje cells,    projection neurons of the cerebellum,    have dendrites splayed out    in a single plane. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 49 Brodmann's map of the brain    based on microscopic differences in cortical structure;    the distinctions correspond to functional boundaries. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 49 Cerebral cortex is 2-4 millimeters thick with area  ~0.1 m2 in each hemisphere.   [Fully mature cerebral cortex, mean surface area, 2200 cm2 (Changeux; Neuronal Man, 45)] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Repeating unit in the cortex is a column of cells about a tenth of a millimeter across, extending throughout the thickness of the cortex. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Small interneurons in layer IV receive most of the incoming signals, the 'afferents', to the column. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Two tiers of projection neurons,    superficial pyramidal cells in layers II and III    transmit the column's output, its 'efferents',    to other regions of the cortex. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Deep pyramidal cells    in layers V and VI    report to more remote targets    beyond the cortex itself. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Cells within each column    compute a pattern of output    from a pattern of inputs. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Numerous columns within a single region of the cortex can be active simultaneously. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Earliest beginnings of the nervous system in a human embryo,    third week after conception. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 50 Hollow spaces    at the center of the adult nervous system;    ventricles of the brain    and central canal of the spinal cord. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 51 Layers of the cortex -  (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 51 Successive waves of cells hug the central spaces of the nervous system. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 51 Cells migrate into position    and start to form orderly connections    with targets near and far. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 54 Every item of behavior;    speech and writing,    gesture and dance;    is achieved by a patterned contraction of muscles.   [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 3
Zeman; Consciousness 57 Cerebellum with only 10 percent of the volume of the brain, has more than half its total complement of neurons. 3
Zeman; Consciousness 57 Cerebellum has a distinctive and highly repetitive modular design,    quite unlike the columnar structure of the cortex. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 59 In the walls of the third ventricle,    each side,  lie the thalami. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 59 Fifteen or more distinctive aggregates of neurons, known as nuclei,    can be discerned within the thalamus. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 59 All cortical regions communicate with the thalamus; it also receives important input from the regions of the brainstem that regulates wakefulness and arousal. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 59 Thalamus is well placed to regulate alertness generally and to focus selective attention. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 60 Small volumes of damage to the thalamus can be devastating.    Stroke. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 60 Widespread damage to the thalamus    can underlie the condition of 'wakefulness without awareness',    which is known as the 'permanent vegetative state'. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 60 Hypothalamus;    floor of the third ventricle;    less than 1 percent of the volume of the human brain;    extremely important. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 60 Hypothalamus    samples the body's internal environment,    regulates blood sugar,    temperature,    blood concentration of salts, etc. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 61 Hypothalamus    is the neural crux    of all our simpler urges. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 61 Nuclear masses of the basal ganglia -- caudate,    putamen,    globus pallidus. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 61 Deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine,    which is conveyed to the basal ganglia    by axons from the brainstem,    causes the tremor,    slowing,    stiffness    and unsteadiness   that characterize Parkinson's disease. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 63 Brain lateral and medial views - (diagram) 2
Zeman; Consciousness 66 Cortical parts of the limbic system    have a relatively primitive microscopic structure,    hinting at their ancient evolutionary origins;    this kind of cortex    dominates    the brain of 'lower' vertebrates. 3
Zeman; Consciousness 66 Link between memory and emotion;    remember what excites us,    whether with pleasure or pain;    what bores us is safely forgotten. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 66 Large overlap between limbic system and the cortical areas concerned with smell;    scent can sometimes evoke long-buried memories. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 68 A cerebella Purkinje cell may receive 200k connections    from the parallel fibers that synapse on its dendrites. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 68 A sensory neuron in the spinal cord may signal to as many as 1000 target neurons by way of axonal arborization. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 68 Effect of a presynaptic neuron    on the activity of the postsynaptic cell    depends on the location of the synapse;    those remote from the body    exert a less powerful effect    than synapses close to the axon hillock    from which the action potential is released. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 69 Some neurons -- a small minority in the human nervous system -- communicate via 'gap junctions', which allow the electrical activity    to pass unimpeded between cells    without need of a chemical messenger. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 69 Neurotransmitters 0
Zeman; Consciousness 69 Permanent depletion of acetylcholine is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 69 Two broad classes of neurotransmitters: (1) small molecule, (2) small protein. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 70 Approximately 10 'small molecule' neurotransmitters. Most are amino acids,    or are derived from amino acids:    acetylcholine, dopamine, adrenaline, serotonin, histamine; glutamate, glycine, GABA. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 70 Small protein neurotransmitters:    endorphins act to modulate the perception of pain;    opium and its derivatives    mimic the action of the endorphins. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 70 Substances that mimic, oppose, boost or otherwise modify the action of neurotransmitters    are among the most widely used drugs in medicine;    epilepsy,    schizophrenia,    depression,    Parkinson's disease. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 70 A single neuron    releases the same chemicals    at all its synapses. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 70 The same combination of substances is released consistently by a given cell. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 70 Receptor variety creates a third source of complexity at the synapse. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 70 Binding of acetylcholine by the receptor    opens a channel,    which allows the passage of sodium,    having much higher concentration outside the cell than in. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 71 Sodium channel closes rapidly    as acetylcholine detaches itself from the receptor    and is broken down by an enzyme. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 71 Great variety of receptor types at the synapses. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 71 Gated ion channels produce a rapid effect. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 71 Second messengers,    cascade of chemical reactions in a cell. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 72 At birth,    brain possesses more or less the final complement of neurons,    but synapse adjustments continue briskly. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 72 Donald Hebb, 'assemblies' of neurons. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 72 Ability to adapt;    even our bones are shaped by use;    ubiquitous plasticity of living things;    ability to learn. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 73 Long Term Potentiation (LTP),    occurs in the hippocampus,    formation of new conscious memories. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 73 Nervous system, network of nerve cells that communicate at synapses; transforms patterns of sensory input into patterns of motor output; adapt behavior to experience, present and past. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 73 Much of the complexity of the human brain    depends on the endless elaboration of simple elements. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 74 Gene duplication is a common chance occurrence in reproduction.    Over the immense periods of the evolutionary past, duplication created opportunity for extraordinary variations on a theme. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 84 <4 Hz, delta; sleep and coma 10
Zeman; Consciousness 84 4-7 Hz, theta; young children, areas damaged by stroke 0
Zeman; Consciousness 84 8-13 Hz, alpha; relaxed wakefulness 0
Zeman; Consciousness 84 14-25 Hz, beta; open eyes, novel sensory events, mental exertion 0
Zeman; Consciousness 84 25-100 Hz, gamma; possible relevance to consciousness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 85 Four rhythms    commonly encountered in EEGs.    beta 14-25 Hz,    alpha 8-13 Hz,    theta 4-7 Hz,    delta <4 Hz. - (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 86 Only synchronized activity    in substantial numbers of cortical cells    could generate currents large enough    to be detected over the scalp.    Source of these currents    is activity in the dendrites    of cortical neurons. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 86 Many neurons are spontaneously active.    This activity is often rhythmic. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 86 If neurons are suitably interconnected,    intrinsically rhythmic patterns    can generate widespread synchronous patterns of EEG. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 86 Neurons whose spontaneous rhythms contribute to the EEG lie in two regions:    (1) cerebral cortex,    (2) straitened confines of the thalamus. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 86 Thalamus,    the gateway to the cortex,    is especially well placed    to synchronize rhythms throughout the brain. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 88 Architecture of sleep. EEG recordings, waking, sleeping; cyclical patterning of sleep. - (illustration) 2
Zeman; Consciousness 90 Adults spend about one-fifth of their seven hours of sleep in REM. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 90 Detect fluctuations in magnetic fields surrounding active brain.   The subject must sit in a specially shielded room to screen out 'magnetic noise' from the environment.    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) device, to detect the magnetic signal. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 90 Rudolfo Llinás in 1990 recorded a rapid oscillation in the gamma frequency in waking subjects,    which was also present during REM but absent from slow wave sleep. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 90 Tones    played to waking subjects    'reset' their gamma rhythm,    but had no effect on the fast oscillation in the brains of subjects in REM. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 90 The Rudolfo Llinás results hint at a role for fast oscillations,    around 40 Hz,    in the genesis of consciousness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 91 40 Hz oscillations    in sleep and wakefulness. -  (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 93 Brainstem auditory response. ~10 msec -   (illustration) 2
Zeman; Consciousness 96 Diencephalon - structures of thalamus and hypothalamus    which bridge the brainstem and hemispheres. 3
Zeman; Consciousness 99 Functional importance of the upper reticular formation to arousal    and of its lower parts to our breathing and circulation. 3
Zeman; Consciousness 100 Reticular activating system, upper brainstem and thalamus. -  (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 100 Much of the brain's noradrenaline,    dopamine,    serotonin,    acetylcholine    and histamine    originates in or close to the brainstem. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 101 Chemistry of wakefulness;    noradrenaline,    dopamine,    acetylcholine,    serotonin. -  (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 103 Suprachiasmatic nucleus;    intrinsically rhythmic,    cycle close to 24 hours.    Pacemaker for the body's circadian rhythms of activity. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 105 No one knows why we sleep. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 109 Chances are excellent that we will one day understand the functions of sleep in the human brain. 4
Zeman; Consciousness 109 Brains of animals    are always electrically active. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 110 Large assemblies of neurons have a propensity to act in synchrony. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 111 Brain is constantly in need of oxygen and glucose. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 117 40 Hz oscillations Rudolfo Llinás detected 6
Zeman; Consciousness 117 Epilepsy is the most common serious disorder encountered by neurologists. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 118 EEG in epilepsy -   (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 126 Opiods induce euphoria and tranquility.    Enhanced release of dopamine from cells that project axons to the nucleus accumbens,    a part of the basal ganglia with intimate connections to the limbic system,    which regulates emotion. 8
Zeman; Consciousness 126 A rush of opiate to the brain gives quite a jerk, not unlike the thrill of orgasm.    Once the brain becomes accustomed to an external supply, it adapts,    reducing its own release of opiods or the sensitivity of its receptors.    Pain then chases pleasure, creating a powerful need to feed the habit. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 127 Surgical operations with diethyl ether as an anaesthetic. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 129 Anaesthetics that are highly fat soluble exert an anaesthetic effect at low concentrations. - (diagram) 2
Zeman; Consciousness 129 Brain activity is globally reduced during anaesthesia,    but thalamic function is particularly reduced;    similarities between anaesthesia and sleep. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 129 Reduction in energy consumption within the brain    goes hand in hand with the slowing of cerebral rhythms    and a loss of synchronization between activity in distant cortical regions. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 130 Some degree of awareness with subsequent recall of the anesthesia experience, but without pain,    is estimated to occur in 2-4 anaesthetics in every 1000. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 130 Tendency for anaesthetics to provide analgesia - relief from pain - at doses that are not high enough    to suppress awareness altogether. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 131 It is possible to be conscious during anaesthesia    but free of pain. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 132 Brains    fall in energy consumption   about 25 percent    during non-REM sleep. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 132 During dreaming,    brain's energy consumption    about like wakefulness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 132 Coma ranges in severity from a state resembling sleep to one resembling death. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 132 Three broad classes of coma:    (1) small areas of damage to the brainstem,    (2) large areas of damage in the hemispheres,    (3) processes involving the brain diffusely, such as poisoning by drugs and infection. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 133 Damage in the hemispheres    causes the brain to swell,    squeezing the brainstem. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 133 Persistent vegetative state -    'wakeful unconsciousness'    or 'wakefulness without awareness'. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 133 Vegetative state is diagnosed in error about half the time. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 134 Vegetative state -    brainstem survives,    while the hemispheres perish.     1
Zeman; Consciousness 134 In the state of 'brain death',    the hemispheres may be perfectly healthy,    but the brainstem has succumbed.
Zeman; Consciousness 134 It may seem curious that the brainstem is the crux of life.    We can survive the loss of the hemispheres,    but the loss of the brainstem leads inexorably to death. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 145 Glasgow Coma Scale - enables doctors to make an objective assessment of level of consciousness;    eye opening,    speech,    movement. 11
Zeman; Consciousness 145 Operate to reduce the pressure from a swelling brain. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 145 Can be conscious, and yet unable to move a muscle. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 146 Consciousness can survive the loss of all the usual means by which we communicate our experience. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 147 Sounds repeated at a certain frequency set up a standing wave. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 147 Several states of awareness can occur during anaesthesia. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 147 Anaesthesia lose in succession:     (1) appreciation of pain,    (2) conscious recall for the procedure,    (3) ability to respond to requests,    (4) ability to acquire implicit memories of the occasion. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 148 No reason to believe that even complete sensory isolation    leads automatically    to loss of awareness. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 148 Median frequency of EEG under anaesthesia - (diagram) 0
Zeman; Consciousness 148 Awake and mentally active,    predominant frequencies are well above 5 Hz,    with a median around 10 Hz.    In deep natural sleep,    drops well below 5 Hz. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 150 Chimps and dolphins    are conscious of their surroundings. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 160 Evolution of the eye -  (illustration) 10
Zeman; Consciousness 165 Evolution of photoreceptors - (illustration) 5
Zeman; Consciousness 167 Layers of neurons in the retina - (illustration) 2
Zeman; Consciousness 169 Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) connections from eye to visual cortex -  (illustration) 2
Zeman; Consciousness 172 Columnar organization of area V1 of the striate cortex - (illustration) 3
Zeman; Consciousness 173 Cortical visual areas:    monkey's brain anatomy and interconnections -  (illustration) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 175 Gestalt psychologists suggested that the brain unconsciously applies a number of principles when we pick out a figure from the background. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 175 In gestalt psychology,    the brain tends to group items    that are close,    similar to one another,    that create a closed space,    or achieve a smooth continuity of line.  [Gestalt laws] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 175 Modern work by researchers at Bell laboratories have examined precisely which features guide the visual system in its preattentive segmentation of the visual world.   0
Zeman; Consciousness 175 Uncomplicated contrasts    of form,    color,   depth    and movement    allow objects to 'pop out' of an array.
Zeman; Consciousness 176 Gestalt  principles of grouping    and figure-ground ambiguity    depicted by Maurits Escher. (diagram) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 183 Imagination -    recognition in reverse.    Areas downstream    project back to the source of their input.    Memory stored in the temporal lobe    excite a cascade of areas    in the visual cortex. 7
Zeman; Consciousness 183 Visual areas downstream    always project back    to the source of their input.    The back projection    is often as substantial as the forward one.    Imagination may exploit this two-way traffic. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 183 Hallucinations -- imaginings that we take to be real. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 201 Neural activity can be a factor in development well before birth. 18
Zeman; Consciousness 202 Neural migration -    Cortex of the brain is formed by migration of neurons    from a 'germinal zone'    close to the ventricles    deep in the brain.    Migration is guided by glial cells,    which extend radial fibers along the route. - (diagram) 1
Zeman; Consciousness 202 Within days, a baby can imitate the facial movements of those around it;    mouth opening   or protrusion of the tongue. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 202 At birth    all the neurons of the visual brain    are present,    but only about 10 percent of the synapses. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 203 The two eyes    feed separately    into layer 4    of the primary visual cortex,   creating alternating    ocular dominance columns,    which form with visual experience after birth. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 203 At birth,    the input from the two eyes   is intermingled;    the ocular dominance columns    form later    under the influence of visual experience. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 203 Hebb's rule - connections between neurons that are active together are strengthened. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 203 Neurons of the visual cortex forge their network of synapse connections;    busy axons expand their bushy crowns,    whereas idle neurons shrink away. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 203 Sensitive time for visual cortex limited to 'critical period', which differs from species to species. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 204 Visual cortex adapts to its surroundings. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 204 Difficult to specify the strength of every synapse of the visual system. A rough genetic sketch is sufficient. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 204   Visual system is provided a generous superfluity of potential interconnections; experience then selects the useful ones, 'fine tuning' the visual system. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 205 Experience may continue to 'sculpt' the visual cortex long after the period of maximum plasticity. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 205 Store information through synaptic change in the sensory regions    in which it is processed.     Plasticity and memory may share a common fundamental explanation in Hebb's rule. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 205 Sight is the outcome of a process of growth, which is guided at different times by an inherited blueprint,    intrinsic activity    and visual experience. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 206 Crucial importance of early experience during a sensitive period     appears to be a general law of psychological development.    It applies to the acquisition of language    and social skills    as well as the maturation of the senses. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 281 Taxonomy of Memory -(diagram):    (1) Declarative (explicit) memory, (2) Procedural (implicit) memory 75
Zeman; Consciousness 281 Declarative memory:    (1) Short-term (working) memory,    (2) Long-term memory 0
Zeman; Consciousness 281 Working memory:    (1) Verbal,    (2) Spatial 0
Zeman; Consciousness 281 Long-term memory:    (1) Episodic - events, (2) Semantic - facts 0
Zeman; Consciousness 281 Procedural memory:    (1) Conditioning,    (2) Priming,    (3) Motor skills 0
Zeman; Consciousness 281 Acquisition of long-term declarative memories depends on structures in the circuit of Papez. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 282 Priming 1
Zeman; Consciousness 282 Conditioning of desire and of disgust,    the priming of recognition,    and the acquisition of skills,    are independent of the ability to recall the    occasions of learning. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 283 Brain has multiple memory systems, and only some of them support conscious learning. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 283 Classical conditioning involves the cerebellum. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 284 Priming leads to a reduction in local brain activity;    repeated exposure to the stimulus    increases the efficiency of neural processing. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 284 As motor skills become automatic,    global brain activation declines.  [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 284 Motor skills:    Prefrontal cortex is engaged in the acquisition of new skills;    shift to posterior regions of the cortex and some subcortical regions, such as the basal ganglia.   [Stereotyped motor programs]  [FAPs] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 284 Three sets of parallel distinctions between:    (1) conscious vision and blindsight,    (2) declarative and procedural memory,    (3) deliberate and habitual actions; -- together with what is known of their correlates in the brain,    lie at the foundations of contemporary theories of consciousness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 285 Ability to move is definitely not required for consciousness; paralysis is no obstacle to awareness. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 285 Language is probably not required for consciousness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 285 Formation of long-term memories usually accompanies consciousness, but is not crucial for awareness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 285 Perhaps at the very least,    the capacity to frame a thought    about experience    is required for consciousness.  [Edelman's 'remembered present'] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 285 Unless we can think about    our experience,    we cannot be conscious.  [Edelman's 'remembered present'] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 285 We do not know the minimal conditions for consciousness. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 287 Consciousness matters;    it allows us to do all kinds of things    that would be impossible without it. 2
Zeman; Consciousness 287 Consciousness is bound up with the brain,    but not all the activity occurring in the brain is conscious. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 287 Deep structures in the brainstem and thalami    are crucial to arousal,    while activity in the thalamus and cortex    determines the contents of consciousness.  [thalamocortical system] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 287 Activity giving rise to consciousness is spread around the brain; several psychological systems participate in it. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 287 Consciousness from interaction - (diagram):  (1) Sensory input, (2) Sensory processing, (3) Memory systems, (4)Arousal system, (5) Motivational and Attention systems, (6) Action system 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Neural Correlate of Consciousness (NCC) is a loosely linked but temporarily coherent network of neurons around the brain, a grouping called a 'cell assembly' by Donald Hebb.  [Edelman's dynamic core] 1
Zeman; Consciousness 288 How large must a cell assembly be to give rise to consciousness?   [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Incorporate particular types of neurons or particular layers of cortex? 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Interactions within the assembly attain a certain level of complexity?   [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Must the activity be of a particular kind or duration? 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Involve particular cortical regions,    or have a certain range of connections    with regions elsewhere? 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Edelman's Dynamic Core 0
Zeman; Consciousness 288 Dynamic Core - a shifting coalition of 'strongly interacting elements'.    At any given time, the dynamic core is responsible for 'primary consciousness',    our perceptual experience.   [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 289 Crick and Koch anticipate that at any given moment the NCC will be comprised of a sparse but widespread network of neurons, whose activity will stand out above background neuron firing for at least 100-200 milliseconds.  [Edelman's dynamic core] 1
Zeman; Consciousness 289 Conscious information must always be capable of guiding action.  [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 290 If primary sensory areas make no direct contribution to awareness, perhaps whole swatches of cortex operate beyond the reach of consciousness. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 290  'Dorsal' stream of visual processing is dedicated to the unconscious on-line control of visually guided behavior, while the 'ventral' stream is responsible for the creation of our conscious visual world. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 290 Consciousness arises when thought illuminates unconscious sensation.  [mental image]  [the self]  [Edelman's 'remembered present'] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 291 Mere sensation    is insufficient    to give rise to consciousness. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 291 Unconscious data of sensation are compared with expectations generated by past experience and current intentions, in limbic regions of the temporal lobes and the basal ganglia. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 291 Damasio locates the neural representation of self    in relatively ancient brain regions,    in the upper brainstem,    thalamus,    deep forebrain nuclei    and somatosensory cortex. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 291 Consciousness depends upon dialog between diverse regions of the brain,     associated with independent psychological functions such as perception,    emotion,    memory,   and action.  [thalamocortical system]  [Edelman's dynamic core] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 292 Sensation becomes conscious only when it encounters past associations,    or is used to govern future action,   or becomes the object of reflection,    or is felt to impact upon the self. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 292 Consciousness:    which regions of the cortex are crucial;    importance of deeper centers    such as the basal ganglia and brainstem. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 292 Kinds of neural activity that fail to excite consciousness:    (1) slow-wave, dreamless sleep,    (2) generalized 'grand mal' seizures;    neurons throughout the brain synchronize their activity,    discharging in massive harmony. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 293 Limited, controlled synchronization    of rapid neuronal discharge    might play a role in perception,    memory    and movement. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Hierarchical visual processing. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Small networks of cells combine to represent objects and people.  [Gestalts] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Place and frequency coding relate to single cells. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Time or phase coding    relates to the activity of groups of cells.  [thalamocortical system]  [Gestalts] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Neurons that represent the disparate features of a single object -- which may be widely spread across the brain -- are associated by firing at the same moment.  [coherent, synchronous] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Synchronous firing of neurons involved in a common activity is often rhythmic, in the gamma band, 25-100 Hz. 0
Zeman; Consciousness 294 If synchronized oscillations are required for consciousness,    intrinsic rhythmicity of neuronal discharge    allows for the rhythmic pacing of brain activity.    0
Zeman; Consciousness 294 Ubiquitous, bidirectional connections    between related brain regions    facilitates synchronization.  [thalamocortical system]
Zeman; Consciousness 295 Neurons are coincidence detectors:    large numbers of other cells connect to them. 1
Zeman; Consciousness 295 Synchronous firing of networks of cells is probably a feature of brain regions controlling movement    as well as of regions involved in sensation.  [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 0
Zeman; Consciousness 296 Consciousness helps to select appropriate actions in an unpredictable world, actions we choose from an ample repertoire on the basis of fine perceptual distinctions.  [Fuster's  perception-action cycle] 1
Zeman; Consciousness 301 Synchronized activity across brain regions at around 40 Hz; a signature of wakefulness, provides a mechanism by which the contents of consciousness can be bound into a unified whole.  [Edelman's dynamic core] 5
Zeman; Consciousness 324 40 Hz oscillation;    signature of perceptual awareness    and a candidate for the mechanism of binding,    may prove to be the most convincing physiological correlate of consciousness. 23
Zeman; Consciousness 329 Computer cannot be conscious. 5
Zeman; Consciousness 333 Attributing consciousness to a computer confuses simulation with reality. 4
Zeman; Consciousness 333 Computers can simulate aspects of human thought,    but we do not expect simulations to possess all of the properties of the processes they simulate. 0
Zeman; Consciousness