Scientific Understanding of Consciousness
Consciousness as an Emergent Property of Thalamocortical Activity

Emotional Memory


Emotional memories are not stored in the amygdala directly but are stored in the cingulate and parahippocampal cortices, with which the amygdala is interconnected. (Kandel; Principles of Neural Science, 992)

The role of the OFC in emotional memory. (Zald & Rauch; Orbitofrontal Cortex, 69)

The orbitofrontal part of the prefrontal cortex influences emotional processing and is presumed to be particularly involved in emotional memory. (Zald & Rauch; Orbitofrontal Cortex, 290)

The hippocampus and amygdala likely interact in the formation of emotional memories. (Vogt; Cingulate Neurobiology, 455)

Amygdala connected to sensory processing systems and to motor control regions - (diagram) (LeDoux; Synaptic Self, 62)

Projections of the amygdala to the cortex are considerably greater than the projections from the cortex to the amygdala. (LeDoux; Emotional Brain, 284)

Plasticity within the amygdala pathways supports emotional memory in the absence of conscious recollection. (Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory, 280)

Visual, acoustic, and olfactory stimuli associated with a highly charged emotional situation take on the affective qualities of that situation. (Emotional Memory Storage, Science 6 August 2010)

Central and basal nuclei of the amygdala send a broad range of outputs back to cortical areas, to subcortical areas involved in other memory systems and behavior, and to autonomic system and brainstem outputs for the expression of emotion through a variety of systems. (Eichenbaum; Neuroscience of Memory, 280)

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) has a crucial role in emotional learning irrespective of valence. (Amygdala to Nucleus Accumbens Pathway, Nature 475, 377380, 21 July 2011)

Amygdala receives inputs from the inferior temporal visual cortex, but not from earlier stages of cortical visual information processing. (Rolls & Treves; Neural Networks, 146)

The amygdala also receives inputs that are potentially about primary reinforcers, for example taste inputs (from the secondary taste cortex, via connections from the orbitofrontal cortex to the amygdala). (Rolls & Treves; Neural Networks, 146)


Research Study Emotional Learning Selectively Strengthens Memories

Research Study Thalamus in Fear and Memory Increased fear memory generalization is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. A neural circuit composed of the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus reuniens (NR) of the thalamus, and the hippocampus control fear memory generalization.


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