Scientific Understanding of Consciousness
Consciousness as an Emergent Property of Thalamocortical Activity

PLoS Biology — selected articles related to Consciousness


Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization

Multiplexing Stimulus Information through Rate and Temporal Codes in Primate Somatosensory Cortex

Key Features of Human Episodic Recollection in the Cross-Episode Retrieval of Rat Hippocampus Representations of Space

Bursting with Randomness: A Simple Model for Stochastic Control of Gene Expression



Movement-Related Theta Rhythm in Humans: Coordinating Self-Directed Hippocampal Learning

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Motivation of Mental Versus Physical Effort

Astrocytes Mediate In Vivo Cholinergic-Induced Synaptic Plasticity

Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex

A Modular Library of Small Molecule Signals Regulates Social Behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans

Functional Clustering Drives Encoding Improvement in a Developing Brain Network during Awake Visual Learning

Differentiation of the Lateral Compartment of the Cochlea Requires a Temporally Restricted FGF20 Signal

Singing a Different Tune — Musical Melody and Speech Intonation

The Vestibular System Implements a Linear–Nonlinear Transformation In Order to Encode Self-Motion

Independent Regulation of Basal Neurotransmitter Release Efficacy by Variable Ca2+ Influx and Bouton Size at Small Central Synapses


MicroRNA-Driven Developmental Remodeling in the Brain Distinguishes Humans from Other Primates

How Awareness Changes the Relative Weights of Evidence During Human Decision-Making

Counterfactual Choice and Learning in a Neural Network Centered on Human Lateral Frontopolar Cortex

The Neural Basis of Following Advice

An OBSL1-Cul7Fbxw8 Ubiquitin Ligase Signaling Mechanism Regulates Golgi Morphology and Dendrite Patterning

Gamma Rhythms in the Brain

Which Primates Recognize Themselves in Mirrors?


Functional Brain Imaging in the Clinical Assessment of Consciousness

Auditory Cortex Tracks Both Auditory and Visual Stimulus Dynamics Using Low-Frequency Neuronal Phase Modulation

Motor Preparatory Activity in Posterior Parietal Cortex is Modulated by Subjective Absolute Value

Microseconds Matter


Influence of Dopaminergically Mediated Reward on Somatosensory Decision-Making

Development of Large-Scale Functional Brain Networks in Children

A Computational Framework for Ultrastructural Mapping of Neural Circuitry

Exploring the “Global Workspace” of Consciousness

Converging Intracranial Markers of Conscious Access

Interaction between Attention and Bottom-Up Saliency Mediates the Representation of Foreground and Background in an Auditory Scene — cocktail party problem: concurrent complex sounds, which are completely mixed upon entering the ear, are re-segregated and selected from within the auditory system.

From Rapid Place Learning to Behavioral Performance: A Key Role for the Intermediate Hippocampus

Long-Term Relationships between Synaptic Tenacity, Synaptic Remodeling, and Network Activity

Reasoning, Learning, and Creativity: Frontal Lobe Function and Human Decision-Making

Causal Modelling and Brain Connectivity in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

From Creation to Consolidation: A Novel Framework for Memory Processing

Feedback System Protects Inner Ear


LTP Promotes a Selective Long-Term Stabilization and Clustering of Dendritic Spines

Complex Events Initiated by Individual Spikes in the Human Cerebral Cortex

Defining a Link between Perceptual Learning and Attention

Mapping the Structural Core of Human Cerebral Cortex

On the Emergence and Awareness of Auditory Objects

A Roadmap for Migrating Neurons

Neural Correlates of Auditory Perceptual Awareness under Informational Masking

Low-Level Information and High-Level Perception: The Case of Speech in Noise

Cellular Conductors: Glial Cells as Guideposts during Neural Circuit Development

Electrical Neuroimaging Reveals Timing of Attentional Control Activity in Human Brain

Sparse Representation of Sounds in the Unanesthetized Auditory Cortex


Basic Math in Monkeys and College Students

Disruption of State Estimation in the Human Lateral Cerebellum

Learning by Numbers in the Primate Cortex

Semantic Associations between Signs and Numerical Categories in the Prefrontal Cortex

An Information Theoretic Characterisation of Auditory Encoding

Sleep-Related Hippocampo-Cortical Interplay during Emotional Memory Recollection

Brain Dynamics Underlying the Nonlinear Threshold for Access to Consciousness

Neurons for Numerosity: As Quantities Increase, So Does the Neuronal Response

Monotonic Coding of Numerosity in Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area

Topological Reorganization of Odor Representations in the Olfactory Bulb

Auditory Cortical Detection and Discrimination Correlates with Communicative Significance

Bridging the Blood-Brain Barrier: New Methods Improve the Odds of Getting Drugs to the Brain Cells That Need Them

Cetaceans Have Complex Brains for Complex Cognition

Mental Training Affects Distribution of Limited Brain Resources -- major limitations of the attentional system concerns the ability to process two temporally close, task-relevant stimuli

Gamma Oscillations in Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex Reflect Pain Perception

The Genetics of Brain Wiring: From Molecule to Mind -- Modelling this complexity may require both new mathematical methods and more detailed empirical data derived from studies of model organisms

A Burst-Based “Hebbian” Learning Rule at Retinogeniculate Synapses Links Retinal Waves to Activity-Dependent Refinement -- Throughout life, activity-dependent synaptic changes are driven by experience and underlie learning and memory, but during early stages of development, they are often driven by activity spontaneously generated within the brain.

Auditory Short-Term Memory Behaves Like Visual Short-Term Memory

Timing and Sequence of Brain Activity in Top-Down Control of Visual-Spatial Attention

An Unexpected Sequence of Events: Mismatch Detection in the Human Hippocampus


How Behavioral Constraints May Determine Optimal Sensory Representations -- The sensory-triggered activity of a neuron is typically characterized in terms of a tuning curve, which describes the neuron's average response as a function of a parameter that characterizes a physical stimulus . . . the main idea being that sensory neurons should represent the sensory world as accurately and efficiently as possible . . . the efficient coding hypothesis, has been extremely successful at predicting the receptive field properties of neurons in early visual and auditory areas, and it is consistent with numerous experimental observations

Functional Convergence of Neurons Generated in the Developing and Adult Hippocampus -- The dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus contains neural progenitor cells that divide, differentiate, and migrate to produce functional neurons that become incorporated into the existing hippocampal circuitry.

Rapid Redistribution of Synaptic PSD-95 in the Neocortex In Vivo -- Most excitatory synapses terminate on dendritic spines, tiny membrane protrusions that contain the postsynaptic density (PSD). Spines vary in size, and their volumes are proportional to the area of the PSD and synaptic strength. The PSD is a proteinaceous complex composed of receptors, adhesion molecules, and signaling complexes.

Implicit Multisensory Associations Influence Voice Recognition

Generalization of Motor Learning Depends on the History of Prior Action -- results are supported by a single Bayesian model of motor learning in which generalization depends on the history of prior motor behavior.

Dorsoventral Patterning in Hemichordates: Insights into Early Chordate Evolution

Unique Development in Hemichordates Suggests Some Unique Features of Chordates

Your Synapse or Mine? Promiscuous Protein Exchanges between Neighboring Synapses – Synapses can be plastic or stable in the mammalian brain. Whereas some plasticity remains and allows for learning, most synapses stabilize, and some may last a lifetime. How synapses are maintained over long periods is a mystery, especially since structural proteins constantly move in and out of synapses. Two prominent synaptic proteins, Synapsin I and ProSAP2, turn over primarily through rapid exchanges between neighboring synapses.

Is Avoiding an Aversive Outcome Rewarding? Neural Substrates of Avoidance Learning in the Human Brain

Dynamics of the Central Bottleneck: Dual-Task and Task Uncertainty — Several cognitive theories share the hypothesis that while most mental and neural operations are modular, certain controlled processes require a distinct capacity-limited “central executive” or “global workspace” system that can establish flexible links among existing processors.

Excitatory and Feed-Forward Inhibitory Hippocampal Synapses Work Synergistically as an Adaptive Filter of Natural Spike Trains

Bursting on the Scene: How Thalamic Neurons Grab Your Attention

Dynamic Encoding of Natural Luminance Sequences by LGN Bursts

Neocortical Connectivity during Episodic Memory Formation

A Model of the Ventral Visual System Based on Temporal Stability and Local Memory

A Neural Seat for Math?

Functional Imaging of Numerical Processing in Adults and 4-y-Old Children

The Neural Persistence of Memory: Retention Begins While You're Still Awake

Offline Persistence of Memory-Related Cerebral Activity during Active Wakefulness

Tuning Curves, Neuronal Variability, and Sensory Coding

Training-Induced Plasticity of Auditory Localization in Adult Mammals

When Seeing Is Misleading: Clutter Leads to High-Confidence Errors

Visual Clutter Causes High-Magnitude Errors


Dynamic Remodeling of Dendritic Arbors in GABAergic Interneurons of Adult Visual Cortex -- dendrite growth and remodeling in adult neurons. Over a period of months, neurons could be seen extending and retracting existing branches, and in rare cases adding new branch tips . . . Neurons exhibiting dynamic arbor rearrangements were GABA-positive non-pyramidal interneurons, while pyramidal cells remained stable . . . dendritic structural remodeling is a substrate for adult plasticity.

Theta Rhythms Coordinate Hippocampal–Prefrontal Interactions in a Spatial Memory Task

Cortical Sensitivity to Visual Features in Natural Scenes -- A central hypothesis concerning sensory processing is that the neuronal circuits are specifically adapted to represent natural stimuli efficiently.

Linking New Information to a Reactivated Memory Requires Consolidation and Not Reconsolidation Mechanisms

Diverse Modes of Axon Elaboration in the Developing Neocortex

Primary Visual Cortex Activity along the Apparent-Motion Trace Reflects Illusory Perception — V1 is part of the network that represents the illusory path of apparent motion . . . lateral interactions within V1 or by feedback mechanisms from higher visual areas, especially the motion-sensitive human MT/V5 complex.

Distributed Neural Plasticity for Shape Learning in the Human Visual Cortex

Highly Nonrandom Features of Synaptic Connectivity in Local Cortical Circuits

Grasping the Intentions of Others with One's Own Mirror Neuron System

Timing the Brain: Mental Chronometry as a Tool in Neuroscience

Loss of Sight and Enhanced Hearing: A Neural Picture

A Functional Neuroimaging Study of Sound Localization: Visual Cortex Activity Predicts Performance in Early-Blind Individuals

Disentangling Sub-Millisecond Processes within an Auditory Transduction Chain


Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω