Scientific Understanding of Consciousness
Consciousness as an Emergent Property of Thalamocortical Activity

Prefrontal Cortex and Drug Addiction

(Joaquín Fuster; The Prefrontal Cortex, 99)























































(Top)  Limbic Circuitry Most Directly Affected by Addiction, Craving, and Withdrawal

Abbreviations: AC, anterior cingulated; AMG, amygdala; DS, dorsal striatum; GP, globus pallid us; Hipp, hippocampus; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; NAC, nucleus accumbens; OFC, orbital prefrontal cortex; Thal, thalamus; VS, ventral striatum.



(Bottom)   Neurotransmitter Connections Most Affected

Abbreviations: BLA, basolateral amygdala; DGP, dorsal globus pallidus; LC, locus coeruleus; NAC, nucleus accumbens; SN, substantia nigra; VGP, ventral globus pallidus; VTA, ventral tegmental area. Green arrows, glutaminergic projections; orange arrows, dopaminergic projections; pink arrows, GABAergic projections.