Scientific Understanding of Consciousness
Consciousness as an Emergent Property of Thalamocortical Activity

Reward and Punishment


Having reward and punishment systems is the solution that evolution has developed to produce appropriate behavior. (Rolls; Emotion Explained, 7)

Computing the reward and punisher value of sensory stimuli, and then using selection between different rewards and avoidance of punishers in a common reward-based currency appears to be the fundamental design that brains use in order to produce appropriate behavior. (Rolls; Emotion Explained, 7)

Emotion and motivation are linked by the property that both involve rewards and punishers. (Rolls; Emotion Explained, 1)

Link to Rewards and Punishers as primary at reinforcers


Link to Pain and Pleasure Systems




Link to Nicotine Addiction

Link to Dopamine Signaling Altered by Drugs of Abuse


Return to Emotion

Link to Consciousness Subject Outline

Further discussion Covington Theory of Consciousness